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The prevalence of specific arithmetic difficulties and specific reading difficulties in 9- to 10-year-old boys and girls.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date1994
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Number of pages10
Original languageEnglish


Data from an epidemiological sample (n= 1206) of British schoolchildren were used to estimate the proportions of 9- to 10-year-olds with specific arithmetic difficulties (SAD), combined with arithmetic-and-reading difficulties (ARD), and specific reading difficulties (SRD). Children in the sample contributed scores on saparate tests of arithmetic reading and nonverbal intelligence. Using a cutting-store approach, which took into account performance on all three tests, a small group of children with SAD (1.3 %) were distinguished from tarter groups with ARD (2.3%) and SRD (3.9%). Contrary to some previous reports, there were equal numbers of males and females within each of the two groups with arithmetic difficulties but a preponderance of males over females amongst the group with specific reading difficulties.