We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


97% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > The proteolytic release of gentoxins from cooke...
View graph of relations

« Back

The proteolytic release of gentoxins from cooked beef.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


<mark>Journal publication date</mark>24/05/2002
<mark>Journal</mark>Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Number of pages5
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Dietary factors are important in the aetiology of human cancer and carcinogens, mostly heterocyclic aromatic amines, have been isolated from cooked proteinaceous foodstuffs. Whilst such carcinogens have induced tumours in rodent bioassays, the dosages required were much higher than estimates of human exposure levels. We have examined the possibility that genotoxins, which were not extractable prior to enzymic digestion, may be released from cooked beef by proteolysis. Dichloromethane and/or a solid-phase tandem extraction procedure were used with aqueous homogenates of pan-fried or uncooked beef, both before and after proteolysis (proteinase K). Genotoxicity was measured using the alkaline single cell–gel electrophoresis (‘Comet') assay in MCL-5 cells and mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1538 or YG1019. Proteolysis released significant amounts of DNA-damaging material that was not extractible prior to enzymic digestion, suggesting that human exposures to diet-derived genotoxins may have been underestimated.