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The X-ray response of TlBr.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


  • Alan; Owens
  • M. Bavdaz
  • G. Brammertz
  • V. Gostilo
  • H. Graafsma
  • A. Kozorezov
  • M. Krumrey
  • I. Lisjutin
  • A. Peacock
  • A. Puig
  • H. Sipila
  • S. Zatoloka
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/02/2003
<mark>Journal</mark>Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Issue number2-3
Number of pages11
Pages (from-to)370-380
<mark>Original language</mark>English


We present the results of a series of X-ray measurements on several prototype TlBr detectors. The devices were fabricated from mono-crystalline material and were typically of size 2.7×2.7×0.8 mm3. The material is extremely pure, having impurity concentrations <100 ppm. The measured electron and hole mobility–lifetime products were found to be 3×10−4 and 1×10−5 cm2 V−1, respectively, which are about an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values. Three detectors were fabricated and extensively tested over the energy range 2.3–100 keV at three synchrotron radiation facilities: the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) laboratory at the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring für Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY II), the European Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility (ESRF) and the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor (HASYLAB) radiation facility. Room temperature energy resolutions under full-area illumination of 1.8 and 3.3 keV FWHM have been achieved at 5.9 and 59.95 keV, respectively. At reduced detector temperatures of −30°C, these fall to 800 eV and 2.6 keV FWHM, respectively. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 6 and 60 keV were 664 eV and 3 keV FWHM at the same temperature. For energies <20 keV, the measured spectra display symmetric photopeaks. However, the peaks become increasingly tailed at higher energies. At the highest energies, the energy-losses due to the electrons and holes are clearly separated. Whilst the detectors gave reproducible results over 12 months of operation, it was observed that for synchrotron beam measurements above 45 keV, they were unstable, showing rate dependent gain shifts and polarization effects. These were not observed at lower energies. The spatial uniformity of the detectors was measured using a 50×50 μm2, 12 keV mono-energetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the forward active area. Whilst two detectors were spatially uniform to a level commensurate with statistics, the third was not. In all cases, evidence was found for charge collection problems caused by field fringing.