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Vanadium and chromium groups

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Published

Publication date2013
Host publicationEncyclopedia of environmental management
EditorsSven Erik Jørgensen
Place of publicationBoca Raton, Fla.
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages0
ISBN (Print)9781439829271
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

The trace metals of Group 5, vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), and tantalum (Ta) and Group 6, chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and tungsten (W), of the periodic table are of economic importance especially in metal industries. They have strong lithophilic tendencies, variable oxidation states and important geochemical characteristics. The two pairs of elements Nb and Ta, and those of Mo and W, have very similar atomic radii and resemble each other in geochemical properties but have different bioavailability and toxicological properties. This review attempts to summarize the existing literature on the occurrence, industrial and technological applications, environmental geochemistry and toxicology of vanadium and chromium group elements. It also reviews the existing international, EU and US regulatory frameworks and guidelines of these elements in the environment.