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World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness

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World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness. / Ryan, A. C.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Watkins, S.; Timmis, R.

In: International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 32, No. 11, 09.2012, p. 1745-1753.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Harvard

Ryan, AC, MacKenzie, AR, Watkins, S & Timmis, R 2012, 'World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness', International Journal of Climatology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1745-1753. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2392

APA

Ryan, A. C., MacKenzie, A. R., Watkins, S., & Timmis, R. (2012). World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness. International Journal of Climatology, 32(11), 1745-1753. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2392

Vancouver

Ryan AC, MacKenzie AR, Watkins S, Timmis R. World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness. International Journal of Climatology. 2012 Sep;32(11):1745-1753. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2392

Author

Ryan, A. C. ; MacKenzie, A. R. ; Watkins, S. ; Timmis, R. / World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness. In: International Journal of Climatology. 2012 ; Vol. 32, No. 11. pp. 1745-1753.

Bibtex

@article{c1c52f7fc74449a583e940c4ab88150d,
title = "World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness",
abstract = "Dense and persistent condensation trails or contrails were produced by daytime US Army Air Force (USAAF) bombing raids, flown from England to Europe during World War II (WW2). These raids occurred in years when civilian air travel was rare, giving a predominantly contrail-free background sky, in a period when there were more meteorological observations taken across England than at any time before or since. The aircraft involved in the raids entered formation at contrail-forming altitudes (generally over 16 000 ft, approximately 5 km) over a relatively small part of southeast England before flying on to their target. This formation strategy provides us a unique opportunity to carry out multiple observation-based comparisons of adjacent, same day, well-defined overflown and non-over-flown regions. We compile evidence from archived meteorological data, such as Met Office daily weather reports and individual station meteorological registers, together with historical aviation information from USAAF and Royal Air Force (RAF) tactical mission reports. We highlight a number of potential dates for study and demonstrate, for one of these days, a marked difference in the amount of high cloud cover, and a statistically significant (0.8 degrees C) difference in the 07:0013:00 UTC temperature range when comparing data from highly overflown stations to those upwind of the flight path on the same day. Although one event cannot provide firm conclusions regarding the effect of contrails on climate, this study demonstrates that the wealth of observational data associated with WW2 bombing missions allows detailed investigation of meteorological perturbations because of aviation-induced cloudiness. Copyright (c) 2011 Royal Meteorological Society",
keywords = "diurnal temperature range, IMPACT, cirrus, CLIMATE, World War II, CIRRUS TRENDS, contrails, DIURNAL TEMPERATURE-RANGE, UNITED-STATES, aviation-induced cloudiness, condensation trails, cloud cover, COVER, CLEAR",
author = "Ryan, {A. C.} and MacKenzie, {A. R.} and S. Watkins and R. Timmis",
year = "2012",
month = sep
doi = "10.1002/joc.2392",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "1745--1753",
journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
issn = "0899-8418",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "11",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - World War II contrails: a case study of aviation-induced cloudiness

AU - Ryan, A. C.

AU - MacKenzie, A. R.

AU - Watkins, S.

AU - Timmis, R.

PY - 2012/9

Y1 - 2012/9

N2 - Dense and persistent condensation trails or contrails were produced by daytime US Army Air Force (USAAF) bombing raids, flown from England to Europe during World War II (WW2). These raids occurred in years when civilian air travel was rare, giving a predominantly contrail-free background sky, in a period when there were more meteorological observations taken across England than at any time before or since. The aircraft involved in the raids entered formation at contrail-forming altitudes (generally over 16 000 ft, approximately 5 km) over a relatively small part of southeast England before flying on to their target. This formation strategy provides us a unique opportunity to carry out multiple observation-based comparisons of adjacent, same day, well-defined overflown and non-over-flown regions. We compile evidence from archived meteorological data, such as Met Office daily weather reports and individual station meteorological registers, together with historical aviation information from USAAF and Royal Air Force (RAF) tactical mission reports. We highlight a number of potential dates for study and demonstrate, for one of these days, a marked difference in the amount of high cloud cover, and a statistically significant (0.8 degrees C) difference in the 07:0013:00 UTC temperature range when comparing data from highly overflown stations to those upwind of the flight path on the same day. Although one event cannot provide firm conclusions regarding the effect of contrails on climate, this study demonstrates that the wealth of observational data associated with WW2 bombing missions allows detailed investigation of meteorological perturbations because of aviation-induced cloudiness. Copyright (c) 2011 Royal Meteorological Society

AB - Dense and persistent condensation trails or contrails were produced by daytime US Army Air Force (USAAF) bombing raids, flown from England to Europe during World War II (WW2). These raids occurred in years when civilian air travel was rare, giving a predominantly contrail-free background sky, in a period when there were more meteorological observations taken across England than at any time before or since. The aircraft involved in the raids entered formation at contrail-forming altitudes (generally over 16 000 ft, approximately 5 km) over a relatively small part of southeast England before flying on to their target. This formation strategy provides us a unique opportunity to carry out multiple observation-based comparisons of adjacent, same day, well-defined overflown and non-over-flown regions. We compile evidence from archived meteorological data, such as Met Office daily weather reports and individual station meteorological registers, together with historical aviation information from USAAF and Royal Air Force (RAF) tactical mission reports. We highlight a number of potential dates for study and demonstrate, for one of these days, a marked difference in the amount of high cloud cover, and a statistically significant (0.8 degrees C) difference in the 07:0013:00 UTC temperature range when comparing data from highly overflown stations to those upwind of the flight path on the same day. Although one event cannot provide firm conclusions regarding the effect of contrails on climate, this study demonstrates that the wealth of observational data associated with WW2 bombing missions allows detailed investigation of meteorological perturbations because of aviation-induced cloudiness. Copyright (c) 2011 Royal Meteorological Society

KW - diurnal temperature range

KW - IMPACT

KW - cirrus

KW - CLIMATE

KW - World War II

KW - CIRRUS TRENDS

KW - contrails

KW - DIURNAL TEMPERATURE-RANGE

KW - UNITED-STATES

KW - aviation-induced cloudiness

KW - condensation trails

KW - cloud cover

KW - COVER

KW - CLEAR

U2 - 10.1002/joc.2392

DO - 10.1002/joc.2392

M3 - Journal article

VL - 32

SP - 1745

EP - 1753

JO - International Journal of Climatology

JF - International Journal of Climatology

SN - 0899-8418

IS - 11

ER -