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Verbal reports, think-alouds and subjective measures: A contribution to the Williams-Leow debate.

Activity: Talk or presentation typesInvited talk


In this talk, I will describe an experiment that contributes to the ongoing debate on learning without awareness (see Williams, 2005; Hama & Leow, 2010; Faretta-Stutenberg & Morgan-Short, 2011; Leung & Williams, 2011) by comparing three measures of awareness: retrospective verbal reports, think-aloud protocols, and subjective measures (confidence ratings and source attributions). The experiment was based on a widely-cited study on the implicit learning of form-meaning connections (Williams, 2005). Our results showed a clear learning effect in experimental subjects but not in controls, i.e. the study provided further evidence for the rapid, incidental learning of form-meaning connections. The three measures of awareness further indicated that experimental subjects acquired both implicit and explicit knowledge of form-meaning connections, a finding that confirms the possibility of learning without awareness (Williams, 2005).

External organisation

NameSeminar für Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Tübingen