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Chifundo Makuta

Research student

Chifundo Makuta

Lancaster University

The Management School



Research overview

Research Interest:

Leadership in Non - Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that execute development projects: leadership styles and leadership behaviours of project leaders and their impact on project performance, project success and project beneficiaries. 

Context: Developing Country (Malawi)

 Research Paradigm (Philosophical assumptions)

  • Critical realism (Critical realist perspective): an integration of a realist ontology with constructivist epistemology

Theoretical perspectives

  • Post-positivism
  • Constructivism

The overall philosophical assumptions change and shift from post-positivist to constructivist when I use multiple philosophical  assumptions.


  • Research Design: Explanatory Sequential Design - Mixed Methods Research
  • Quantitative and Qualitative research approaches


  • Quantitative approach

- Survey

- Use of Questionnaire: Multifactor Leadership Questions 360 (MLQ 360)

  • Qualitative approach

- In-depth interviews

Data analysis

  • Quantitative data analysis: using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPPS) software programme
  • Qualitative data analysis: Using Computer - assisted qualitative analysis methods (CAQDAS) software packages such as Nvivo and Atlas.ti

Review of literature

  • The impact of leadership approaches and Leadership behaviours on development projects performance and project success: Systematic Literature  Review and Thematic Synthesis.