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Amplification factor in IOTs with island building

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In a triode type electron gun the amplification factor, μ, determines how the beam current varies with time for any given gun geometry and applied voltages. A simple triode low-μ formula has regularly been used to predict IOT behaviour however, it is incapable of addressing nonuniform cathode emission resulting from modern grid geometry and small cathode-grid distances. Consequently it is incapable of detailing meaningful emission behaviour or accurate prediction. A literature search identified few μ formulae suitable for IOT-type geometry. Results show excellent agreement between them but a significant departure from the often-used Maxwell or "low-μ" triode formula [1]. The formulae should offer the ability to more accurately predict IOT performance characteristics.