We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > An analysis of costs in institutions of higher ...
View graph of relations


« Back

An analysis of costs in institutions of higher education in England

Research output: Working paper


Publication date2005
Place of publicationLancaster University
PublisherThe Department of Economics
Original languageEnglish

Publication series

NameEconomics Working Paper Series


Cost functions are estimated, using both random effects and stochastic frontier methods, for institutions of higher education in England. The paper advances on the existing literature by employing finer disaggregation by subject, institution type, and location, and by introducing consideration of quality effects. The findings are that, amongst undergraduates, medical students are the most costly, and non-science students the least; amongst postgraduates, those on taught courses are costly, while research students are relatively inexpensive. Provision in London is found to be more costly than that elsewhere. Estimates of economies of scale and economies of scope vary according to the choice of estimating technique. The random effects model suggests that ray economies of scale and economies of scope are ubiquitous. The stochastic frontier model suggests some product-specific economies of scale in research, but diseconomies elsewhere, and product specific economies of scope in undergraduate science, but diseconomies elsewhere. This has implications for achieving any expansion in higher education.