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Cryogenics.

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Abstract

Cryogenics is the science and technology of very low temperatures. Although there is no hard and fast definition of where ordinary refrigeration gives way to cryogenics, it is customary to consider the dividing line as being at ~ 100K. Of particular scientific interest and importance are the cryogenic phenomena of superconductivity (below -20 K) and superfluidity (below -2 K), for which no known analogues exist in the everyday world at room temperature. Cryogenic techniques are now being employed in applications as diverse as medicine, rocketry, archeology, and metrology.