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Developmental invariance in distinctiveness effects in memory

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>11/2006
<mark>Journal</mark>Developmental Psychology
Issue number6
Volume42
Number of pages13
Pages (from-to)1193-1205
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Improvements in 5- and 7-year-olds' acquisition and retention of related concept pairings were examined when additional similarities and differences between pair members were provided. Using a standard paired-associate learning paradigm, children learned 18 related picture pairs; some of the children either were given or produced additional similarities or differences between pair members at the time of learning. Three weeks after learning was complete, children attempted to recall the pairs. Using a model to determine the storage and retrieval loci of these effects, the results showed that (a) all children benefited from self-generated elaborations, regardless of whether these were similarities or differences, and these benefits were storage related, and (b) difference elaborations improved children's retention regardless of whether they were self- or experimenter-generated, and these effects were primarily retrieval based. These results are consistent with theories that (a) view retrieval as the locus of distinctiveness effects and (b) view storage as the locus of self-generated memory improvements.