Postgrowth rapid thermal annealing was used to study the relaxation mechanism and optical properties of InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that a significant narrowing of the luminescence linewidth (from 80 to 42 meV) occurs together with about 86 meV blue shift at annealing temperature up to 950°C. Double crystal X-ray diffraction measurements show that the intensity of the satellite diffraction peak, which corresponds to the quantum dots superlattice, decreased with the increasing annealing temperature and disappeared at 750°C, but recovered and increased again at higher annealing temperatures. This behavior can be explained by two competing relaxation mechanisms; interdiffusion and favored migration. The study indicates that a suitable annealing treatment can improve the structural properties of the quantum dots superlattice.