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Extreme and conflicting appraisals of activated internal states discriminate remitted bipolar disorder from remitted unipolar depression and non-clinical controls.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published
  • Rebecca Kelly
  • Warren Mansell
  • Alex Wood
  • Y Alatiq
  • Alyson Dodd
  • Ruth Searson
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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2011
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Affective Disorders
Issue number1-3
Volume134
Number of pages0
Pages (from-to)438-443
Publication statusPublished
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Background
This research aimed to test whether positive, negative, or conflicting appraisals about activated mood states (e.g., energetic and high states) predicted bipolar disorder.

Methods
A sample of individuals from clinical and control groups (171 with bipolar disorder, 42 with unipolar depression, and 64 controls) completed a measure of appraisals of internal states.

Results
High negative appraisals related to a higher likelihood of bipolar disorder irrespective of positive appraisals. High positive appraisals related to a higher likelihood of bipolar disorder only when negative appraisals were also high. Individuals were most likely to have bipolar disorder, as opposed to unipolar depression or no diagnosis, when they endorsed both extremely positive and extremely negative appraisals of the same, activated states.

Limitations
Appraisals of internal states were based on self-report.

Conclusions
The results indicate that individuals with bipolar disorder tend to appraise activated, energetic internal states in opposing or conflicting ways, interpreting these states as both extremely positive and extremely negative. This may lead to contradictory attempts to regulate these states, which may in turn contribute to mood swing symptoms. Psychological therapy for mood swings and bipolar disorder should address extreme and conflicting appraisals of mood states.