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Extreme and conflicting appraisals of activated internal states discriminate remitted bipolar disorder from remitted unipolar depression and non-clinical controls.

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Rebecca Kelly
  • Warren Mansell
  • Alex Wood
  • Y Alatiq
  • Alyson Dodd
  • Ruth Searson
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2011
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Affective Disorders
Issue number1-3
Number of pages0
Pages (from-to)438-443
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


This research aimed to test whether positive, negative, or conflicting appraisals about activated mood states (e.g., energetic and high states) predicted bipolar disorder.

A sample of individuals from clinical and control groups (171 with bipolar disorder, 42 with unipolar depression, and 64 controls) completed a measure of appraisals of internal states.

High negative appraisals related to a higher likelihood of bipolar disorder irrespective of positive appraisals. High positive appraisals related to a higher likelihood of bipolar disorder only when negative appraisals were also high. Individuals were most likely to have bipolar disorder, as opposed to unipolar depression or no diagnosis, when they endorsed both extremely positive and extremely negative appraisals of the same, activated states.

Appraisals of internal states were based on self-report.

The results indicate that individuals with bipolar disorder tend to appraise activated, energetic internal states in opposing or conflicting ways, interpreting these states as both extremely positive and extremely negative. This may lead to contradictory attempts to regulate these states, which may in turn contribute to mood swing symptoms. Psychological therapy for mood swings and bipolar disorder should address extreme and conflicting appraisals of mood states.