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Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date14/03/2013
JournalSensors
Journal number3
Volume13
Number of pages17
Pages3635-3651
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterisation of the first graphene ring micro electrodes with the addition of a miniature concentric Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The graphene ring electrode is formed by dip coating fibre optics with graphene produced by a modified Hummers method. The reference electrode is formed using an established photocatalytically initiated electroless deposition (PIED) plating method. The performance of the so-formed graphene ring micro electrodes (GRiMEs) and associated reference electrode is studied using the probe redox system ferricyanide and electrode thicknesses assessed using established electrochemical methods. Using 220 mu m diameter fibre optics, a similar to 15 nm thick graphene ring electrode is obtained corresponding to an inner to outer radius ratio of >0.999, so allowing for use of extant analytical descriptions of very thin ring microelectrodes in data analysis. GRiMEs are highly reliable (current response invariant over >3,000 scans), with the concentric reference electrode showing comparable stability (current response invariant over >300 scans). Furthermore the micro-ring design allows for efficient use of electrochemically active graphene edge sites and the associated nA scale currents obtained neatly obviate issues relating to the high resistivity of undoped graphene. Thus, the use of graphene in ring microelectrodes improves the reliability of existing micro-electrode designs and expands the range of use of graphene-based electrochemical devices.