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Loop ileostomy-mediated fecal stream diversion is associated with microbial dysbiosis

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>3/09/2017
<mark>Journal</mark>Gut Microbes
Issue number5
Volume8
Number of pages12
Pages (from-to)467-478
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date16/06/17
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often carried out within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-operative complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated faecal stream diversion. Functional and defunctioned ileal resection tissue was obtained at the time of loop-ileostomy closure. Intrapatient comparisons, including histological assessment of morphology and epithelial cell proliferation, were performed on paired samples utilising the functional limb as control. Mucosal-associated microflora was quantified via determination of 16S rRNA gene copy number using qPCR analysis. DGGE with Sanger sequencing and qPCR methods profiled microflora to genus and phylum level, respectively. Reduced villous height and proliferation confirmed atrophy of the defunctioned ileum. DGGE analysis revealed that the microflora within defunctioned ileum is less diverse and convergence between defunctioned microbiota profiles was observed. Candidate Genera, notably Clostridia and Streptococcus, reduced in relative terms in defunctioned ileum. We conclude that Ileostomy-associated nutrient deprivation results in dysbiosis and impaired intestinal renewal in the defunctioned ileum. Altered host-microbial interactions at the mucosal surface likely contribute to the deterioration in homeostasis and thus may underpin numerous postoperative complications. Strategies to sustain the microflora prior to reanastomosis should be investigated.