We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Process characteristics and effects of gas- and...
View graph of relations

« Back

Process characteristics and effects of gas- and water-atomized stainless steel powders in laser-based rapid tooling

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date08/2003
JournalJournal of laser applications
Journal number3
Number of pages7
Original languageEnglish


In rapid tooling using the direct laser deposition process and stainless steel materials, only powders prepared using the gas-atomization method have been used because of their presumed superior flow characteristics. In this article, the use of water-atomized powder is investigated by comparing the behavior of the two types of 316 L powders, deposited using a CO2 laser and coaxial head. Results show little difference in the pneumatic conveyance of the powders, but considerably greater absorption of laser energy by the water-atomized powder between the nozzle and material deposition point. Walls produced using the water-atomized powder exhibited a more textured microstructure and smoother sidewall surfaces, with less surface metallic oxides, but the deposition rate was considerably lower than when using gas-atomized powder. (C) 2003 Laser Institute of America.