PCDD/Fs were quantified in samples of cattle, pig, sheep and chicken manure. TEQs ranged from 0.19 ng TEQ/kg dw for the pig manure to 20 ng TEQ/kg dw for one cattle manure sample. Exposure assessments were carried out to compare the effect of various sewage sludge and cattle manure land application scenarios on human PCDD/F exposure. Background exposure was estimated at 4.9 pg TEQ/kg bw/day and it was found that land application of sewage sludge and cattle manure at contemporary rates did not increase PCDD/F TEQ background exposure. It was concluded that the application of sewage sludge, under the new UK guidelines, and cattle manure to agricultural land, do not make a significant contribution to human exposure to PCDD/Fs.