Decarbonizing transport is a key element of low-carbon development but emissions from transport are amongst the most intransigent and are expected to rise significantly in the coming decades. Most policies regarding low-carbon transport follow a dominant economistic paradigm, exploring the options of either behavioural change to reduce demand for transport or technological change to increase the efficiency of its energy use. However, there is much evidence that this will not be successful. A shift from ‘transport’ towards socio-technical systems, situated practices of mobility and smart mobility innovation is thus advocated. The chapter focuses on urban transport.