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Dr Mukarrum Ahmed

Lecturer in Business Law

Mukarrum Ahmed

Bowland North



Tel: +44 1524 594458

PhD supervision

Private International Law (Conflict of Laws), International Commercial Litigation and Arbitration


Dr Mukarrum Ahmed is Lecturer in Business Law at the University of Lancaster and a barrister of Lincoln's Inn. He graduated with a PhD in Law from the University of Aberdeen School of Law where he was awarded a fully funded Doctoral Scholarship for his research project on Private International Law of the EU. Dr Ahmed was the recipient of the University of Aberdeen's Principal's Excellence Award in 2015.

Dr Ahmed's first book, The Nature and Enforcement of Choice of Court Agreements (Hart/Bloomsbury), was published in 2017. His second book, Brexit and the Future of Private International Law in English Courts, was published by Oxford University Press in May 2022. The latter focuses on the implications of Brexit for private international law in England and Wales. It charts the course of the discipline as it moves out of the influence of the European Union. The end of the EU legal regime has created a once-in-a-generation opportunity to rethink English private international law rules and whether they are working as they should be.

Dr Ahmed's work on asymmetric choice of court agreements and the conflicts of jurisdiction was referred to by the High Court of England and Wales in Etihad Airways v Flöther (Air Berlin) [2019] EWHC 3107 (Comm), a €2 billion airline financing dispute and jurisdiction battle. His research has been cited in pre-eminent treatises on private international law (conflict of laws), international litigation and arbitration. Dr Ahmed's work has also been cited in influential policy papers and consultations in the UK and EU.  

Dr Ahmed has published in leading law journals including the Journal of Private International Law, the Law Quarterly Review and the European Business Law Review. He is Editor of conflictoflaws.net, the world's foremost online forum on private international law. He has been an expert peer reviewer for Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, Routledge, Springer, the Journal of Private International Law, Transnational Legal Theory and the Indian Journal of International Law.

Prior to the commencement of his doctoral studies in Aberdeen, he was a practicing Advocate at a top tier commercial law firm and Lecturer in the Conflict of Laws and Jurisprudence and Legal Theory to University of London (External) students. At this point in his career, his formal legal education consisted of the Bar Vocational Course (BVC) from the Inns of Court School of Law, London and a Master's and Bachelor's degree in Law from City, University of London and the University of London respectively.


FHEA - PGCAP (Lancaster University)

PhD in Law (University of Aberdeen)

Barrister (Lincoln's Inn)

LLM (City, University of London)

LLB (Hons) (University of London)

Research Interests

Dr Ahmed's research interests focus on private international law (conflict of laws), international commercial litigation and arbitration. His interest in private international law is closely aligned with his fascination for EU law, international legal theory and comparative law.

Current Teaching

Private International Law (LLB) (Director)

Principles of Commercial Law (LLB)

International Commercial Litigation (LLM) (Director)

International Commercial Arbitration (LLM) (Director)

LLB/LLM Dissertation Supervision

PhD Supervision

Additional Information

Director of PG Recruitment and Admissions and Cluster Lead for Law, Business and the Economy in the Centre for Law and Society 

External Roles

Associate Member of the Centre for Private International Law, School of Law, University of Aberdeen.

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