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Dr Mukarrum Ahmed

Lecturer in Business Law

Mukarrum Ahmed

Bowland North



Tel: +44 1524 594458

PhD supervision

Private International Law (Conflict of Laws), International Commercial Litigation and Arbitration


Dr Mukarrum Ahmed is Lecturer in Business Law at the University of Lancaster, and a barrister of Lincoln's Inn. He graduated with a PhD in Law from the University of Aberdeen School of Law, where he was awarded a fully funded Doctoral Scholarship. Dr Ahmed was the recipient of the University of Aberdeen's Principal's Excellence Award in 2015.

Dr Ahmed is a recognised expert and the author of books on private international law and commercial law. He has published in leading law journals including the Journal of Private International Law, the Law Quarterly Review and the European Business Law Review. He approaches the law from theoretical, pragmatic and comparative perspectives. Recurrent themes in his work include the post-Brexit development of private international law, party autonomy, methodological pluralism and the global governance function of private international law.  

His work on asymmetric choice of court agreements and the conflicts of jurisdiction was quoted by the High Court of England and Wales in Etihad Airways v Flöther (Air Berlin) [2019] EWHC 3107 (Comm) (Jacobs J), a €2 billion airline financing dispute and jurisdiction battle. His research was most recently cited with approval in the European Court of Justice (AG Collins) in Cases C‑345/22 and C‑347/22 Maersk A/S v Allianz Seguros y Reaseguros SA and Case C‑346/22 Mapfre España Compañía de Seguros y Reaseguros SA v MACS Maritime Carrier Shipping GmbH & Co. These three preliminary references to the European Court of Justice concerned the enforceability of English jurisdiction clauses in bills of lading against third party holders of the bills of lading. Dr Ahmed's research has been cited in pre-eminent treatises on private international law, international litigation and arbitration. His work has also been cited in influential policy papers and consultations in the UK and EU.  

Dr Ahmed is External Examiner of several legal theory, private and public law modules at York Law School, University of York. He is Associate Member of the Centre for Private International Law, School of Law, University of Aberdeen. He is an Editor of Commentaries on Private International Law, the biannual publication of the American Society of International Law's Private International Law Interest Group, and Conflictoflaws.net - Views and News on Private International Law, the world's foremost online forum on private international law. He has been an expert peer reviewer, amongst others, for OUP, CUP, Routledge, the Journal of Private International Law, Transnational Legal Theory and the Indian Journal of International Law.

Prior to the commencement of his doctoral studies in Aberdeen, he was an Advocate at a top tier commercial law firm and Adjunct Lecturer in the Conflict of Laws and Jurisprudence and Legal Theory at a University of London Recognised Teaching Centre. At this point in his career, his formal legal education consisted of the Bar Vocational Course (BVC) from the Inns of Court School of Law, London and a Master's and Bachelor's degree in Law from City, University of London and the University of London respectively.


FHEA - PGCAP (Lancaster University)

PhD in Law (University of Aberdeen)

Barrister (Lincoln's Inn)

LLM (City, University of London)

LLB (Hons) (University of London)

Research Interests

Dr Ahmed's research interests focus on private international law (conflict of laws), international commercial litigation and arbitration. His interest in private international law is closely aligned with his fascination for EU law, international legal theory and comparative law.

Current Teaching

Private International Law (LLB) (Convenor)

Principles of Commercial Law (LLB)

International Commercial Litigation (LLM) (Convenor)

International Commercial Arbitration (LLM) (Convenor)

LLB/LLM Dissertation Supervision

PhD Supervision

Additional Information

Director of PG Recruitment and Admissions and Cluster Lead for Law, Business and the Economy in the Centre for Law and Society 

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