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  • pharmaceutics-15-02743

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4D Printing: The Development of Responsive Materials Using 3D-Printing Technology

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineLiterature reviewpeer-review

  • Pablo Antezana
  • Sofia Municoy
  • Gabriel Ostapchuk
  • Paolo Catalano
  • John Hardy
  • Pablo Evelson
  • Gorka Orive
  • Martin Desimone
Article number2743
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>7/12/2023
Issue number12
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Additive manufacturing, widely known as 3D printing, has revolutionized the production of biomaterials. While conventional 3D-printed structures are perceived as static, 4D printing introduces the ability to fabricate materials capable of self-transforming their configuration or function over time in response to external stimuli such as temperature, light, or electric field. This transformative technology has garnered significant attention in the field of biomedical engineering due to its potential to address limitations associated with traditional therapies. Here, we delve into an in-depth review of 4D-printing systems, exploring their diverse biomedical applications and meticulously evaluating their advantages and disadvantages. We emphasize the novelty of this review paper by highlighting the latest advancements and emerging trends in 4D-printing technology, particularly in the context of biomedical applications.