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A bilevel multi-objective road pricing model for economic, environmental and health sustainability

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2/07/2014
<mark>Journal</mark>Transportation Research Procedia
Number of pages10
Pages (from-to)393-402
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


We propose a bilevel multi-objective approach to optimise tolls in a road network. Multiple objectives have been considered at either the upper or lower level in the literature but not both. We consider three objectives at the upper level: minimising system travel time; total vehicle emissions; and negative health impacts, modelled as the level of pollutant uptake. For the lower level, we adopt a time surplus maximisation bi-objective user equilibrium model, assuming all users have two objectives: minimising travel time and toll. The complete bilevel optimisation problem is solved using a combination of a metaheuristic and a classical optimisation algorithm.