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A Comprehensive Review of Distributed MPPT for Grid-Tied PV Systems at the Sub-Module Level

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>19/07/2023
Issue number14
Number of pages23
Pages (from-to)5468
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Energy crises and the growth of the energy demand have increased the interest in utilizing unconventional power sources. Thus, renewable energy sources have become a topic of interest to mitigate rising energy concerns and cope with increased electricity demand. With remarkable merits including cleanness and abundance, photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems are a key to solving these issues. The employed inverters should effectively utilize the maximum available power from the PV solar system and transfer this power to the utility grid without posing any further limitations. However, the unequal power generation of different PV systems caused by partial shading (PS) and other PV panel degradation factors leads to a reduction in generation capacity. One of the relatively new solutions to mitigate the mismatch concerns between the PV modules and sub-modules is to extract the maximum power of each sub-module individually. The main objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of such PV grid-connected inverters topologies associated with sub-module connection and control. It will classify the PV grid-tied inverters in accordance with the level where the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system is implemented. A special focus has been placed on sub-module microinverters (MI) in terms of circuit topologies, conversion efficiency, and controller design. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of employing the distributed MPPT (DMPPT) approach to maximize the power generation of PV systems by mitigating the mismatch issues inside the PV module. The circuit topology, PV system configuration, and MPPT algorithms used for applying DMPPT solutions in PV SMs are discussed in detail in this study.