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Activated charcoal based diffusive gradients in thin films for in Situ monitoring of bisphenols in waters

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>6/01/2015
<mark>Journal</mark>Analytical Chemistry
Issue number1
Number of pages7
Pages (from-to)801-807
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date20/11/14
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Widespread use of bisphenols (BPs) in our daily life results in their elevated concentrations in waters and the need to study their environmental impact, which demands reliable and robust measurement techniques. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is an in situ passive sampling approach which provides time-integrated data. In this study we developed a new methodology, based on DGT with activated charcoal (AC) as a binding agent, for measuring three BPs (BPA, BPB, and BPF) which incorporated and tested its performance characteristics. Consistent elution efficiencies were obtained using methanol when concentrations of BPs were low and a methanol–NaOH mixture at high concentrations. The diffusion coefficients of BPA, BPB, and BPF in the diffusive gel, measured using an independent diffusion cell, were 5.03 × 10–6, 5.64 × 10–6, and 4.44 × 10–6 cm2 s–1 at 25 °C, respectively. DGT with an AC binding gel had a high capacity for BPA, BPB, and BPF at 192, 140, and 194 μg/binding gel disk, respectively, and the binding performance did not deteriorate with time, up to 254 d after production. Time-integrated concentrations of BPs measured in natural waters using DGT devices with AC gels deployed in situ for 7 d were comparable to concentrations measured by an active sampling method. This study demonstrates that AC-based DGT is an effective tool for in situ monitoring of BPs in waters.