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Affective norms of 875 Spanish words for five discrete emotional categories and two emotional dimensions

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Jose Antonio Hinojosa
  • Natalia Martinez Garcia
  • Cristina Villalba Garcia
  • Uxia Fernandez Folgueiras
  • Alberto Sanchez Carmona
  • Miguel Angel Pozo
  • Pedro Montoro
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>03/2016
<mark>Journal</mark>Behavior Research Methods
Issue number1
Number of pages13
Pages (from-to)272-284
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date5/03/15
<mark>Original language</mark>English


In the present study, we introduce affective norms for a new set of Spanish words, the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS), that were scored on two emotional dimensions (valence and arousal) and on five discrete emotional categories (happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust), as well as on concreteness, by 660 Spanish native speakers. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables—grammatical class, word frequency, number of letters, and number of syllables—for the words are also included. We observed high split-half reliabilities for every emotional variable and a strong quadratic relationship between valence and arousal. Additional analyses revealed several associations between the affective dimensions and discrete emotions, as well as with some psycholinguistic variables. This new corpus complements and extends prior databases in Spanish and allows for designing new experiments investigating the influence of affective content in language processing under both dimensional and discrete theoretical conceptions of emotion. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials for this article from www.​dropbox.​com/​s/​o6dpw3irk6utfhy/​Hinojosa%20​et%20​al_​Supplementary%20​materials.​xlsx?​dl=​0.