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An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities

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An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities. / Usman, N.; Alfandi, O.; Usman, S.; Khattak, A.M.; Awais, M.; Hayat, B.; Sajid, A.

In: Sensors, Vol. 20, No. 15, 4116, 24.07.2020, p. 1-29.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Usman, N, Alfandi, O, Usman, S, Khattak, AM, Awais, M, Hayat, B & Sajid, A 2020, 'An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities', Sensors, vol. 20, no. 15, 4116, pp. 1-29. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116

APA

Usman, N., Alfandi, O., Usman, S., Khattak, A. M., Awais, M., Hayat, B., & Sajid, A. (2020). An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities. Sensors, 20(15), 1-29. [4116]. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116

Vancouver

Usman N, Alfandi O, Usman S, Khattak AM, Awais M, Hayat B et al. An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities. Sensors. 2020 Jul 24;20(15):1-29. 4116. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154116

Author

Usman, N. ; Alfandi, O. ; Usman, S. ; Khattak, A.M. ; Awais, M. ; Hayat, B. ; Sajid, A. / An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities. In: Sensors. 2020 ; Vol. 20, No. 15. pp. 1-29.

Bibtex

@article{3540787f24714474862a86d730a13c58,
title = "An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities",
abstract = "Nowadays, there is a growing trend in smart cities. Therefore, Terrestrial and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs and IoT-UWSNs) are mostly used for observing and communicating via smart technologies. For the sake of collecting the desired information from the underwater environment, multiple acoustic sensors are deployed with limited resources, such as memory, battery, processing power, transmission range, etc. The replacement of resources for a particular node is not feasible due to the harsh underwater environment. Thus, the resources held by the node needs to be used efficiently to improve the lifetime of a network. In this paper, to support smart city vision, a terrestrial based “Away Cluster Head with Adaptive Clustering Habit” (ACH)2 is examined in the specified three dimensional (3-D) region inside the water. Three different cases are considered, which are: single sink at the water surface, multiple sinks at water surface„ and sinks at both water surface and inside water. “Underwater (ACH)2 ” (U-(ACH)2) is evaluated in each case. We have used depth in our proposed U-(ACH)2 to examine the performance of (ACH)2 in the ocean environment. Moreover, a comparative analysis is performed with state of the art routing protocols, including: Depth-based Routing (DBR) and Energy Efficient Depth-based Routing (EEDBR) protocol. Among all of the scenarios followed by case 1 and case 3, the number of packets sent and received at sink node are maximum using DEEC-(ACH)2 protocol. The packets drop ratio using TEEN-(ACH)2 protocol is less when compared to other algorithms in all scenarios. Whereas, for dead nodes DEEC-(ACH)2, LEACH-(ACH)2, and SEP-(ACH)2 protocols{\textquoteright} performance is different for every considered scenario. The simulation results shows that the proposed protocols outperform the existing ones. ",
keywords = "Acoustic signals, Clustering, IoT, Nodes, Routing protocols, Smart cities, Underwater, Wireless sensor networks, Energy efficiency, Power management (telecommunication), Sensor nodes, Smart city, Underwater acoustics, Comparative analysis, Energy efficient routing, Internet of Things (IOT), Multiple acoustic sensors, Threedimensional (3-d), Transmission ranges, Underwater environments, Underwater wireless sensor networks, Internet of things",
author = "N. Usman and O. Alfandi and S. Usman and A.M. Khattak and M. Awais and B. Hayat and A. Sajid",
year = "2020",
month = jul,
day = "24",
doi = "10.3390/s20154116",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
pages = "1--29",
journal = "Sensors",
issn = "1424-8220",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "15",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - An energy efficient routing approach for IoT enabled underwater wsns in smart cities

AU - Usman, N.

AU - Alfandi, O.

AU - Usman, S.

AU - Khattak, A.M.

AU - Awais, M.

AU - Hayat, B.

AU - Sajid, A.

PY - 2020/7/24

Y1 - 2020/7/24

N2 - Nowadays, there is a growing trend in smart cities. Therefore, Terrestrial and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs and IoT-UWSNs) are mostly used for observing and communicating via smart technologies. For the sake of collecting the desired information from the underwater environment, multiple acoustic sensors are deployed with limited resources, such as memory, battery, processing power, transmission range, etc. The replacement of resources for a particular node is not feasible due to the harsh underwater environment. Thus, the resources held by the node needs to be used efficiently to improve the lifetime of a network. In this paper, to support smart city vision, a terrestrial based “Away Cluster Head with Adaptive Clustering Habit” (ACH)2 is examined in the specified three dimensional (3-D) region inside the water. Three different cases are considered, which are: single sink at the water surface, multiple sinks at water surface„ and sinks at both water surface and inside water. “Underwater (ACH)2 ” (U-(ACH)2) is evaluated in each case. We have used depth in our proposed U-(ACH)2 to examine the performance of (ACH)2 in the ocean environment. Moreover, a comparative analysis is performed with state of the art routing protocols, including: Depth-based Routing (DBR) and Energy Efficient Depth-based Routing (EEDBR) protocol. Among all of the scenarios followed by case 1 and case 3, the number of packets sent and received at sink node are maximum using DEEC-(ACH)2 protocol. The packets drop ratio using TEEN-(ACH)2 protocol is less when compared to other algorithms in all scenarios. Whereas, for dead nodes DEEC-(ACH)2, LEACH-(ACH)2, and SEP-(ACH)2 protocols’ performance is different for every considered scenario. The simulation results shows that the proposed protocols outperform the existing ones.

AB - Nowadays, there is a growing trend in smart cities. Therefore, Terrestrial and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs and IoT-UWSNs) are mostly used for observing and communicating via smart technologies. For the sake of collecting the desired information from the underwater environment, multiple acoustic sensors are deployed with limited resources, such as memory, battery, processing power, transmission range, etc. The replacement of resources for a particular node is not feasible due to the harsh underwater environment. Thus, the resources held by the node needs to be used efficiently to improve the lifetime of a network. In this paper, to support smart city vision, a terrestrial based “Away Cluster Head with Adaptive Clustering Habit” (ACH)2 is examined in the specified three dimensional (3-D) region inside the water. Three different cases are considered, which are: single sink at the water surface, multiple sinks at water surface„ and sinks at both water surface and inside water. “Underwater (ACH)2 ” (U-(ACH)2) is evaluated in each case. We have used depth in our proposed U-(ACH)2 to examine the performance of (ACH)2 in the ocean environment. Moreover, a comparative analysis is performed with state of the art routing protocols, including: Depth-based Routing (DBR) and Energy Efficient Depth-based Routing (EEDBR) protocol. Among all of the scenarios followed by case 1 and case 3, the number of packets sent and received at sink node are maximum using DEEC-(ACH)2 protocol. The packets drop ratio using TEEN-(ACH)2 protocol is less when compared to other algorithms in all scenarios. Whereas, for dead nodes DEEC-(ACH)2, LEACH-(ACH)2, and SEP-(ACH)2 protocols’ performance is different for every considered scenario. The simulation results shows that the proposed protocols outperform the existing ones.

KW - Acoustic signals

KW - Clustering

KW - IoT

KW - Nodes

KW - Routing protocols

KW - Smart cities

KW - Underwater

KW - Wireless sensor networks

KW - Energy efficiency

KW - Power management (telecommunication)

KW - Sensor nodes

KW - Smart city

KW - Underwater acoustics

KW - Comparative analysis

KW - Energy efficient routing

KW - Internet of Things (IOT)

KW - Multiple acoustic sensors

KW - Threedimensional (3-d)

KW - Transmission ranges

KW - Underwater environments

KW - Underwater wireless sensor networks

KW - Internet of things

U2 - 10.3390/s20154116

DO - 10.3390/s20154116

M3 - Journal article

VL - 20

SP - 1

EP - 29

JO - Sensors

JF - Sensors

SN - 1424-8220

IS - 15

M1 - 4116

ER -