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Bioactive Composite for Orbital Floor Repair and Regeneration

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Article number10333
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>7/09/2022
<mark>Journal</mark>International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number18
Number of pages25
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


In the maxillofacial area, specifically the orbital floor, injuries can cause bone deformities in the head and face that are difficult to repair or regenerate. Treatment methodologies include use of polymers, metal, ceramics on their own and in combinations mainly for repair purposes, but little attention has been paid to identify suitable materials for orbital floor regeneration. Polyurethane (PU) and hydroxyapatite (HA) micro- or nano- sized with different percentages (25%, 40% & 60%) were used to fabricate bioactive tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds using solvent casting and particulate leaching methods. Mechanical and physical characterisation of TE scaffolds was investigated by tensile tests and SEM respectively. Chemical and structural properties of PU and PU/HA scaffolds were evaluated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Surface properties of the bioactive scaffold were analysed using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory coupled with IR. Cell viability, collagen formed, VEGF protein amount and vascularisation of bioactive TE scaffold were studied. IR characterisation confirmed the integration of HA in composite scaffolds, while ATR confirmed the significant amount of HA present at the top surface of the scaffold, which was a primary objective. The SEM images confirmed the pores’ interconnectivity. Increasing the content of HA up to 40% led to an improvement in mechanical properties, and the incorporation of nano-HA was more promising than that of micro-HA. Cell viability assays (using MG63) confirmed biocompatibility and CAM assays confirmed vascularization, demonstrating that HA enhances vascularization. These properties make the resulting biomaterials very useful for orbital floor repair and regeneration.