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Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble: the degassing of Katla 1918, a subglacial basaltic eruption

Research output: Contribution to conference - Without ISBN/ISSN Poster

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Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble : the degassing of Katla 1918, a subglacial basaltic eruption. / Owen, Jacqueline; Tuffen, Hugh; Coats, Becky.

2015. 76 Poster session presented at Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 2015, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conference - Without ISBN/ISSN Poster

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Owen J, Tuffen H, Coats B. Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble: the degassing of Katla 1918, a subglacial basaltic eruption. 2015. Poster session presented at Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 2015, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Author

Owen, Jacqueline ; Tuffen, Hugh ; Coats, Becky. / Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble : the degassing of Katla 1918, a subglacial basaltic eruption. Poster session presented at Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 2015, Norwich, United Kingdom.1 p.

Bibtex

@conference{37e54d54d21b4d0aae6c98e9fe08afdf,
title = "Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble: the degassing of Katla 1918, a subglacial basaltic eruption",
abstract = "The subglacial 1918 eruption of Katla was one of Iceland{\textquoteright}s most powerful of the 20th century, producing ~five times the total eruptive volume (DRE) of bothEyjafjallaj{\"o}kull 2010 and Gr{\'i}msv{\"o}tn 2011. However, little is known of the factors that made it such an explosive eruption e.g. was fragmentation fuelled by meltwater interaction or magmatic volatiles?We have collected both j{\"o}kulhlaup and airfall tephra from the 1918 Katla eruption. In both deposits, stratigraphy was observed, which has allows us to evaluate different periods during the eruption. The matrix glass water content, measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), was used to infer loading pressure. J{\"o}kulhlaup samples suggest quenching pressures of 0.4 to 1.2 MPa. Although this suggests some loading, it is considerably lower than the 3.6 MPa which is the inferred glacial load, based on an ice thickness of 400 m. There is also evidence of clast welding which suggests that post-fragmentation quenching was not instantaneous and may indicate that fragmentation occurred within the conduit. The H2O content of the airfall tephra is consistent with degassing under atmospheric conditions.Total volatile contents measured using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggest that degassing became more efficient as the eruption progressed .All clasts have a high bubble number density. Vesicles are often spherical with some evidence of coalescence. However, both vesicle size and microlite contents are varied suggesting a variety of cooling rates. Hotstage experiments, performed at eruptive temperatures, indicate bubble growth rates in the order of 0.8-1.6 µm s-1 . Based on models of pyroclasts cooling within meltwater, this suggests that there would be insufficient time for significant post-fragmentation bubble growth within the j{\"o}kulhlaup samples. This agrees with vesicle textures as there is often no correlation between bubble size and position within the clast. However, some clasts within the airfall deposit seem to have rapidly quenched margins and significantly larger vesicles in theclast centre consistent with continued post-fragmentation degassing, suggestive of slower cooling rates which may indicate little or no interaction with meltwater.Future work involves quantification of bubble textures, further volatile and geochemical analysis and evaluation of clast morphologies and grain sizedistributions to infer the degree of water interaction. ",
keywords = "Katla, subglacial, volatiles, degassing, bubbles, Phreatomagmatic",
author = "Jacqueline Owen and Hugh Tuffen and Becky Coats",
year = "2015",
language = "English",
pages = "76",
note = "Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 2015 ; Conference date: 05-01-2015 Through 07-01-2015",

}

RIS

TY - CONF

T1 - Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble

T2 - Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 2015

AU - Owen, Jacqueline

AU - Tuffen, Hugh

AU - Coats, Becky

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - The subglacial 1918 eruption of Katla was one of Iceland’s most powerful of the 20th century, producing ~five times the total eruptive volume (DRE) of bothEyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. However, little is known of the factors that made it such an explosive eruption e.g. was fragmentation fuelled by meltwater interaction or magmatic volatiles?We have collected both jökulhlaup and airfall tephra from the 1918 Katla eruption. In both deposits, stratigraphy was observed, which has allows us to evaluate different periods during the eruption. The matrix glass water content, measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), was used to infer loading pressure. Jökulhlaup samples suggest quenching pressures of 0.4 to 1.2 MPa. Although this suggests some loading, it is considerably lower than the 3.6 MPa which is the inferred glacial load, based on an ice thickness of 400 m. There is also evidence of clast welding which suggests that post-fragmentation quenching was not instantaneous and may indicate that fragmentation occurred within the conduit. The H2O content of the airfall tephra is consistent with degassing under atmospheric conditions.Total volatile contents measured using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggest that degassing became more efficient as the eruption progressed .All clasts have a high bubble number density. Vesicles are often spherical with some evidence of coalescence. However, both vesicle size and microlite contents are varied suggesting a variety of cooling rates. Hotstage experiments, performed at eruptive temperatures, indicate bubble growth rates in the order of 0.8-1.6 µm s-1 . Based on models of pyroclasts cooling within meltwater, this suggests that there would be insufficient time for significant post-fragmentation bubble growth within the jökulhlaup samples. This agrees with vesicle textures as there is often no correlation between bubble size and position within the clast. However, some clasts within the airfall deposit seem to have rapidly quenched margins and significantly larger vesicles in theclast centre consistent with continued post-fragmentation degassing, suggestive of slower cooling rates which may indicate little or no interaction with meltwater.Future work involves quantification of bubble textures, further volatile and geochemical analysis and evaluation of clast morphologies and grain sizedistributions to infer the degree of water interaction.

AB - The subglacial 1918 eruption of Katla was one of Iceland’s most powerful of the 20th century, producing ~five times the total eruptive volume (DRE) of bothEyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. However, little is known of the factors that made it such an explosive eruption e.g. was fragmentation fuelled by meltwater interaction or magmatic volatiles?We have collected both jökulhlaup and airfall tephra from the 1918 Katla eruption. In both deposits, stratigraphy was observed, which has allows us to evaluate different periods during the eruption. The matrix glass water content, measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), was used to infer loading pressure. Jökulhlaup samples suggest quenching pressures of 0.4 to 1.2 MPa. Although this suggests some loading, it is considerably lower than the 3.6 MPa which is the inferred glacial load, based on an ice thickness of 400 m. There is also evidence of clast welding which suggests that post-fragmentation quenching was not instantaneous and may indicate that fragmentation occurred within the conduit. The H2O content of the airfall tephra is consistent with degassing under atmospheric conditions.Total volatile contents measured using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggest that degassing became more efficient as the eruption progressed .All clasts have a high bubble number density. Vesicles are often spherical with some evidence of coalescence. However, both vesicle size and microlite contents are varied suggesting a variety of cooling rates. Hotstage experiments, performed at eruptive temperatures, indicate bubble growth rates in the order of 0.8-1.6 µm s-1 . Based on models of pyroclasts cooling within meltwater, this suggests that there would be insufficient time for significant post-fragmentation bubble growth within the jökulhlaup samples. This agrees with vesicle textures as there is often no correlation between bubble size and position within the clast. However, some clasts within the airfall deposit seem to have rapidly quenched margins and significantly larger vesicles in theclast centre consistent with continued post-fragmentation degassing, suggestive of slower cooling rates which may indicate little or no interaction with meltwater.Future work involves quantification of bubble textures, further volatile and geochemical analysis and evaluation of clast morphologies and grain sizedistributions to infer the degree of water interaction.

KW - Katla

KW - subglacial

KW - volatiles

KW - degassing

KW - bubbles

KW - Phreatomagmatic

M3 - Poster

SP - 76

Y2 - 5 January 2015 through 7 January 2015

ER -