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Cytoreductive Nephrectomy Promoted Abscopal Effect of Camrelizumab Combined With Radiotherapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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  • M. Wu
  • J. Liu
  • S. Seery
  • X. Meng
  • J. Yue
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Article number646085
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>15/06/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Frontiers in Immunology
Volume12
Number of pages9
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

There is little evidence around Camrelizumab combined with cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) and radiotherapy (RT) as a treatment option for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The influence of CN on immune responses and the abscopal effect are not well understood. In this paper, we report a case of anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) treated with combined RT once CN reduced the primary tumor burden (TB). This patient also encountered an increased response to targeted radiotherapy after immune resistance. We also observed a macrophage-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) peak, which may be correlated with subsequent pseudoprogression after thoracic radiotherapy. Consequently, even with the disease, this patient has remained stable. This peculiar instance suggests there is a need to investigate the underlying mechanisms of CN in promoting the abscopal effect during immunotherapy when combined with RT. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation into the role of RT in overcoming immune resistance, and the value of MLR in predicting pseudoprogression. We hypothesize that a heavy tumor burden might suppress the abscopal effect, thereby ensuring that CN promotes it. However, radiotherapy may overcome immune resistance during oligoprogression. © Copyright © 2021 Wu, Liu, Seery, Meng and Yue.