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Development programs, security, and violence reduction: Evidence from an insurgency in India

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Article number104911
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/06/2020
<mark>Journal</mark>World Development
Number of pages14
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date10/03/20
<mark>Original language</mark>English


India has employed a variety of military, political and economic measures to combat the long running insurgency in Kashmir with little evidence on what contributes to stability in the region. This paper uses a variety of tests to detect structural breaks in the time series for violence over the period 1998–2017. We
identify a transition from a high violence regime to a low violence regime that coincides with (i) the fencing of the border with Pakistan (ii) the implementation of a large-scale development program, and (iii) the phasing in of the Indian National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS). Panel data analysis using district-level data further corroborate these findings. Our results highlight the complementary roles of development programs and security in reducing violence.