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Direct measurements of black carbon fluxes in central Beijing using the eddy covariance method

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

  • Rutambhara Joshi
  • D. Liu
  • E. Nemitz
  • B. Langford
  • N. Mullinger
  • F. Squires
  • J. Lee
  • Y. Wu
  • Xiaole Pan
  • Pingqing Fu
  • S. Kotthaus
  • S. Grimmond
  • Q. Zhang
  • Ruili Wu
  • O. Wild
  • Michael Flynn
  • Hugh Coe
  • James Allan
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>8/01/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Issue number1
Number of pages16
Pages (from-to)147-162
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Black carbon (BC) forms an important component of particulate matter globally, due to its impact on climate, the environment and human health. Identifying and quantifying its emission sources are critical for effective policymaking and achieving the desired reduction in air pollution. In this study, we present the first direct measurements of urban BC fluxes using eddy covariance. The measurements were made over Beijing within the UK-China Air Pollution and Human Health (APHH) winter 2016 and summer 2017 campaigns. In both seasons, the mean measured BC mass (winter: 5.49 ng m−2 s−1, summer: 6.10 ng m−2 s−1) and number fluxes (winter: 261.25 particles cm−2 s−1, summer: 334.37 particles cm−2 s−1) were similar. Traffic was determined to be the dominant source of the BC fluxes measured during both seasons. The total BC emissions within the 2013 Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) are on average too high compared to measured fluxes by a factor of 58.8 (winter) and 47.2 (summer). Only a comparison with the MEIC transport sector shows that emissions are also larger (factor of 37.5 in winter and 37.7 in summer) than the measured flux. Emission ratios of BC ∕ NOx and BC ∕ CO are comparable to vehicular emission control standards implemented in January 2017 for gasoline (China 5) and diesel (China V) engines, indicating a reduction of BC emissions within central Beijing, and extending this to a larger area would further reduce total BC concentrations.