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Direct observations of degassing induced crystallization in basalts

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Direct observations of degassing induced crystallization in basalts. / Applegarth, Louisa; Tuffen, Hugh; James, Michael; Pinkerton, Harry; Cashman, Katharine V.

In: Geology, Vol. 41, No. 2, 02.2013, p. 243-246.

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@article{1e3dd065ba4a4f23816450d490e1393f,
title = "Direct observations of degassing induced crystallization in basalts",
abstract = "Magma degassing can trigger crystal growth by increasing the magma liquidus temperature. As crystallization greatly increases magma viscosity, this process can strongly influence eruptive dynamics. We use a microscope and heated stage to obtain the first direct observations of degassing-driven crystal growth in natural basaltic melts at magmatic temperatures. Samples from Mount Etna, Italy (0.39 wt% H2O), and Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (0.18 wt% H2O) were heated in air at 1 bar, and held isothermally for 0.5–17 h between 1190 °C and 1270 °C, before cooling to solidus temperatures. On heating, bubble growth at >900 °C indicated volatile exsolution. In the hydrous Etna sample, isothermal conditions produced numerous new plagioclase crystals that grew to ≤160 μm at maximum rates of 5.2–18 × 10−6 cm s−1. Growth rates and crystal morphologies (tabular to spherulitic) depended on dwell temperature. Growth slowed dramatically after 20 min as equilibrium was approached. In the H2O-poor Kilauea sample, few new crystals appeared; they grew at maximum rates of 1.7–6.5 × 10−6 cm s−1. On cooling, crystal nucleation and growth were strongly influenced by preexisting crystal textures, highlighting the importance of studying natural samples. Our results document rapid crystal growth triggered by melt devolatilization when the H2O content of the glass is sufficiently high. Resultant swift, substantial changes in magma texture are a key control on lava rheology at Etna and elsewhere. ",
author = "Louisa Applegarth and Hugh Tuffen and Michael James and Harry Pinkerton and Cashman, {Katharine V.}",
year = "2013",
month = feb,
doi = "10.1130/G33641.1",
language = "English",
volume = "41",
pages = "243--246",
journal = "Geology",
issn = "0091-7613",
publisher = "Geological Society of America",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Direct observations of degassing induced crystallization in basalts

AU - Applegarth, Louisa

AU - Tuffen, Hugh

AU - James, Michael

AU - Pinkerton, Harry

AU - Cashman, Katharine V.

PY - 2013/2

Y1 - 2013/2

N2 - Magma degassing can trigger crystal growth by increasing the magma liquidus temperature. As crystallization greatly increases magma viscosity, this process can strongly influence eruptive dynamics. We use a microscope and heated stage to obtain the first direct observations of degassing-driven crystal growth in natural basaltic melts at magmatic temperatures. Samples from Mount Etna, Italy (0.39 wt% H2O), and Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (0.18 wt% H2O) were heated in air at 1 bar, and held isothermally for 0.5–17 h between 1190 °C and 1270 °C, before cooling to solidus temperatures. On heating, bubble growth at >900 °C indicated volatile exsolution. In the hydrous Etna sample, isothermal conditions produced numerous new plagioclase crystals that grew to ≤160 μm at maximum rates of 5.2–18 × 10−6 cm s−1. Growth rates and crystal morphologies (tabular to spherulitic) depended on dwell temperature. Growth slowed dramatically after 20 min as equilibrium was approached. In the H2O-poor Kilauea sample, few new crystals appeared; they grew at maximum rates of 1.7–6.5 × 10−6 cm s−1. On cooling, crystal nucleation and growth were strongly influenced by preexisting crystal textures, highlighting the importance of studying natural samples. Our results document rapid crystal growth triggered by melt devolatilization when the H2O content of the glass is sufficiently high. Resultant swift, substantial changes in magma texture are a key control on lava rheology at Etna and elsewhere.

AB - Magma degassing can trigger crystal growth by increasing the magma liquidus temperature. As crystallization greatly increases magma viscosity, this process can strongly influence eruptive dynamics. We use a microscope and heated stage to obtain the first direct observations of degassing-driven crystal growth in natural basaltic melts at magmatic temperatures. Samples from Mount Etna, Italy (0.39 wt% H2O), and Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (0.18 wt% H2O) were heated in air at 1 bar, and held isothermally for 0.5–17 h between 1190 °C and 1270 °C, before cooling to solidus temperatures. On heating, bubble growth at >900 °C indicated volatile exsolution. In the hydrous Etna sample, isothermal conditions produced numerous new plagioclase crystals that grew to ≤160 μm at maximum rates of 5.2–18 × 10−6 cm s−1. Growth rates and crystal morphologies (tabular to spherulitic) depended on dwell temperature. Growth slowed dramatically after 20 min as equilibrium was approached. In the H2O-poor Kilauea sample, few new crystals appeared; they grew at maximum rates of 1.7–6.5 × 10−6 cm s−1. On cooling, crystal nucleation and growth were strongly influenced by preexisting crystal textures, highlighting the importance of studying natural samples. Our results document rapid crystal growth triggered by melt devolatilization when the H2O content of the glass is sufficiently high. Resultant swift, substantial changes in magma texture are a key control on lava rheology at Etna and elsewhere.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84873415830&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1130/G33641.1

DO - 10.1130/G33641.1

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:84873415830

VL - 41

SP - 243

EP - 246

JO - Geology

JF - Geology

SN - 0091-7613

IS - 2

ER -