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Dual-compensated antisymmetric composite refocusing pulses for NMR

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>12/2012
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Volume225
Number of pages12
Pages (from-to)81-92
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date17/10/12
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Novel antisymmetric composite 180 degrees pulses are designed for use in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and verified experimentally. The pulses are simultaneously broadband with respect to both inhomogeneity of the radiofrequency (B-1) field and resonance offset and, as a result of their antisymmetric phase schemes, can be used to form spin echoes without the introduction of a phase error. The new dual-compensated pulses are designed analytically, using symmetry arguments and a graphical interpretation of average Hamiltonian theory. Two families of composite refocusing pulses are presented, one (ASBO-9) consisting of sequences made up of 9 simple 180 degrees pulses and one (ASBO-11) of sequences made up of 11 simple 180 degrees pulses. There are an infinite number of composite pulses in each family owing to a free phase variable in the solution to the average Hamiltonian equations and this allows selection of individual composite pulses with particular properties. Finally, a comparison is made between composite pulses designed using average Hamiltonian theory and those proposed for use in quantum computing by NMR. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.