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Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, India

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

  • Gareth Stewart
  • W. Joe F. Acton
  • Beth S. Nelson
  • Adam Robert Vaughan
  • James R. Hopkins
  • Rahul Arya
  • Arnab Mondal
  • Ritu Jangirh
  • Sakshi Ahlawat
  • Lokesh Yadav
  • Sudhir K. Sharma
  • Rachel E. Dunmore
  • Siti S. M. Yunus
  • Eiko Nemitz
  • Ranu Gadi
  • Lokesh K. Sahu
  • Nidhi Tripathi
  • Andrew Rickard
  • James D. Lee
  • Tuhin K. Mandal
  • Jacqueline F. Hamilton
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>18/02/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Issue number4
Number of pages24
Pages (from-to)2383-2406
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Twenty-nine different fuel types used in residential dwellings in northern India were collected from across Delhi (76 samples in total). Emission factors of a wide range of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (192 compounds in total) were measured during controlled burning experiments using dual-channel gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (DC-GC-FID), two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC-FID), proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and solid-phase extraction two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPE-GC × GC–ToF-MS). On average, 94 % speciation of total measured NMVOC emissions was achieved across all fuel types. The largest contributors to emissions from most fuel types were small non-aromatic oxygenated species, phenolics and furanics. The emission factors (in g kg−1) for total gas-phase NMVOCs were fuelwood (18.7, 4.3–96.7), cow dung cake (62.0, 35.3–83.0), crop residue (37.9, 8.9–73.8), charcoal (5.4, 2.4–7.9), sawdust (72.4, 28.6–115.5), municipal solid waste (87.3, 56.6–119.1) and liquefied petroleum gas (5.7, 1.9–9.8).
The emission factors measured in this study allow for better characterisation, evaluation and understanding of the air quality impacts of residential solid-fuel combustion in India.