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Energy and spectrum efficiency trade-off for green small cell networks

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Green Small Cell Networks aim at achieving high rates and low powers by offloading users with low signal-to-noise-ratios from macrocell to the pico base station. In this work, we propose to jointly optimise energy efficiency (EE) and spectrum efficiency (SE) such that the network providers can dynamically tune the trade-off parameter for different design requirements. This paper formulates the EE-SE trade-off as a multi-objective optimisation problem (MOP) in the uplink of multi-user two-tier Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Heterogeneous Networks. Using the weighted sum method, the MOP can be transformed into a single-objective optimisation problem (SOP). The proposed EE and SE trade-off optimisation problem is strictly quasi-concave. Hence, using Dual Decomposition approach, we derive the unique optimal solution. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and illustrate the fundamental tradeoff between EE and SE for different tradeoff parameters such as maximum transmission power and circuit power.