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  • Estrogen_JHM_R1

    Rights statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Hazardous Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Hazardous Materials, 389, 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121891

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Estrogens in municipal wastewater and receiving waters in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China: Occurrence and risk assessment of mixtures

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Article number121891
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>5/05/2020
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Hazardous Materials
Volume389
Number of pages10
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date13/12/19
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

The potentially high release of estrogens to surface waters due to high population density and local livestock production in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region may pose adverse effects on reproductive systems of aquatic organisms. This study found that total measured concentrations of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) were 468 ± 27 ng/L in treated wastewater and 219 ± 23 ng/L in river waters in this region. E2, E3 and EE2 were the predominant estrogens in river waters. The restriction of DES for human use should have been enforced, however concentrations of DES were relatively high compared to other studies. Haihe and Yongdingxin Rivers delivered approximately 1.8 tonnes of estrogens to the Bohai Bay annually. Concentrations of individual estrogens were significantly higher in river waters in the dry season, however, mass loadings were significantly higher in the wet season. The average E2-equivalent concentrations reached 1.2 ± 0.2 and 0.64 ± 0.08 μg-E2/L following long-term and short-term exposure estimates, respectively, in river waters with an EE2 contribution of over 90 %. This could give rise to high risks to fish. Estrogens in river waters largely derived from human excretion. Field studies on estrogenic effects on fish reproductive systems are required locally considering high estrogen contamination levels.

Bibliographic note

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Hazardous Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Hazardous Materials, 389, 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121891