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    Rights statement: This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Public Health following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Rhiannon Edge, Diana A van der Plaat, Vaughan Parsons, David Coggon, Martie van Tongeren, Rupert Muiry, Paul Cullinan, Ira Madan, Ethnic differences in risk of severe Covid-19: To what extent are they driven by exposure?, Journal of Public Health, 2021;, fdab347, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab347 is available online at:

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    Embargo ends: 21/09/22

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Ethnic differences in risk of severe Covid-19: To what extent are they driven by exposure?

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

E-pub ahead of print
  • Rhiannon Edge
  • Diana van der Plaat
  • Vaughan Parsons
  • David Coggon
  • Martie van Tongeren
  • Rupert Muiry
  • Paul cullinan
  • Ira Madan
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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>21/09/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Public Health
Number of pages10
Publication StatusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date21/09/21
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Abstract
Background
This study quantifies the risk of Covid-19 among ethnic groups of healthcare staff during the first pandemic wave in England.

Methods
We analysed data on 959 356 employees employed by 191 National Health Service trusts during 1 January 2019 to 31 July 2020, comparing rates of Covid-19 sickness absence in different ethnic groups.

Results
In comparison with White ethnic groups, the risk of short-duration Covid-19 sickness absence was modestly elevated in South Asian but not Black groups. However, all Black and ethnic minority groups were at higher risk of prolonged Covid-19 sickness absence. Odds ratios (ORs) relative to White ethnicity were more than doubled in South Asian groups (Indian OR 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36–2.63; Pakistani OR 2.38, 2.15–2.64; Bangladeshi OR 2.38, 1.98–2.86), while that for Black African ethnicity was 1.82 (1.71–1.93). In nursing/midwifery staff, the association of ethnicity with prolonged Covid-19 sickness absence was strong; the odds of South Asian nurses/midwives having a prolonged episode of Covid-19 sickness absence were increased 3-fold (OR 3.05, 2.82–3.30).

Conclusions
Residual differences in risk of short term Covid-19 sickness absences among ethnic groups may reflect differences in non-occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Our results indicate ethnic differences in vulnerability to Covid-19, which may be only partly explained by medical comorbidities.

Bibliographic note

This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Public Health following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Rhiannon Edge, Diana A van der Plaat, Vaughan Parsons, David Coggon, Martie van Tongeren, Rupert Muiry, Paul Cullinan, Ira Madan, Ethnic differences in risk of severe Covid-19: To what extent are they driven by exposure?, Journal of Public Health, 2021;, fdab347, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab347 is available online at: