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Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) 2.0: A manifesto of open challenges and interdisciplinary research directions

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E-pub ahead of print
  • Luca Longo
  • Mario Brcic
  • Federico Cabitza
  • Jaesik Choi
  • Roberto Confalonieri
  • Javier Del Ser
  • Riccardo Guidotti
  • Yoichi Hayashi
  • Francisco Herrera
  • Andreas Holzinger
  • Richard Jiang
  • Hassan Khosravi
  • Freddy Lecue
  • Gianclaudio Malgieri
  • Andrés Páez
  • Wojciech Samek
  • Johannes Schneider
  • Timo Speith
  • Simone Stumpf
Article number102301
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/06/2024
<mark>Journal</mark>Information Fusion
Publication StatusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date17/02/24
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Understanding black box models has become paramount as systems based on opaque Artificial Intelligence (AI) continue to flourish in diverse real-world applications. In response, Explainable AI (XAI) has emerged as a field of research with practical and ethical benefits across various domains. This paper highlights the advancements in XAI and its application in real-world scenarios and addresses the ongoing challenges within XAI, emphasizing the need for broader perspectives and collaborative efforts. We bring together experts from diverse fields to identify open problems, striving to synchronize research agendas and accelerate XAI in practical applications. By fostering collaborative discussion and interdisciplinary cooperation, we aim to propel XAI forward, contributing to its continued success. We aim to develop a comprehensive proposal for advancing XAI. To achieve this goal, we present a manifesto of 28 open problems categorized into nine categories. These challenges encapsulate the complexities and nuances of XAI and offer a road map for future research. For each problem, we provide promising research directions in the hope of harnessing the collective intelligence of interested stakeholders.