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  • Feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing in India

    Rights statement: Copyright: – 2016 Sarkar A et al; licensee International AIDS Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

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Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method : a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India. / Sarkar, Archana ; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma ; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar ; Mehra, Sunil.

In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol. 19, 20993, 12.09.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Sarkar, A, Mburu, G, Shivkumar, PV, Sharma, P, Campbell, F, Behera, J, Dargan, R, Mishra, SK & Mehra, S 2016, 'Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India', Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 19, 20993. https://doi.org/10.7448/IAS.19.1.20993

APA

Sarkar, A., Mburu, G., Shivkumar, P. V., Sharma, P., Campbell, F., Behera, J., Dargan, R., Mishra, S. K., & Mehra, S. (2016). Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, [20993]. https://doi.org/10.7448/IAS.19.1.20993

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Author

Sarkar, Archana ; Mburu, Gitau ; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma ; Sharma, Pankhuri ; Campbell, Fiona ; Behera, Jagannath ; Dargan, Ritu ; Mishra, Surendra Kumar ; Mehra, Sunil. / Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method : a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India. In: Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2016 ; Vol. 19.

Bibtex

@article{efac72e2123f4d2f89e0fb7d98c905f6,
title = "Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India",
abstract = "Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick{\textregistered} HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. Results: In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen{\textquoteright}s Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with p<0.001 for inter-rater agreement. Although 92.6% participants reported that the instructions for the test were easy to understand, 18.7% required the assistance of a supervisor to self-test. Major themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews indicated the importance of the following factors in influencing acceptability of self-testing: clarity and accessibility of test instructions; time-efficiency and convenience of testing; non-invasiveness of the test; and fear of incorrect results. Overall, 96.5% of the participants recommended that the OraQuick{\textregistered} test kits should become publicly available. Conclusions: Self-testing for HIV status using an oral fluid-based rapid test under the supervision of a community health worker was acceptable and feasible among pregnant women in rural India. Participants were supportive of making self-testing publicly available. Policy guidelines and implementation research are required to advance HIV self-testing for larger populations at scale.",
keywords = "supervised HIV self testing, pregnant women, India, Acceptability, Feasibility, pregnancy",
author = "Archana Sarkar and Gitau Mburu and Shivkumar, {Poonam Varma} and Pankhuri Sharma and Fiona Campbell and Jagannath Behera and Ritu Dargan and Mishra, {Surendra Kumar} and Sunil Mehra",
year = "2016",
month = sep,
day = "12",
doi = "10.7448/IAS.19.1.20993",
language = "English",
volume = "19",
journal = "Journal of the International AIDS Society",
issn = "1758-2652",
publisher = "International AIDS Society",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method

T2 - a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

AU - Sarkar, Archana

AU - Mburu, Gitau

AU - Shivkumar, Poonam Varma

AU - Sharma, Pankhuri

AU - Campbell, Fiona

AU - Behera, Jagannath

AU - Dargan, Ritu

AU - Mishra, Surendra Kumar

AU - Mehra, Sunil

PY - 2016/9/12

Y1 - 2016/9/12

N2 - Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. Results: In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen’s Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with p<0.001 for inter-rater agreement. Although 92.6% participants reported that the instructions for the test were easy to understand, 18.7% required the assistance of a supervisor to self-test. Major themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews indicated the importance of the following factors in influencing acceptability of self-testing: clarity and accessibility of test instructions; time-efficiency and convenience of testing; non-invasiveness of the test; and fear of incorrect results. Overall, 96.5% of the participants recommended that the OraQuick® test kits should become publicly available. Conclusions: Self-testing for HIV status using an oral fluid-based rapid test under the supervision of a community health worker was acceptable and feasible among pregnant women in rural India. Participants were supportive of making self-testing publicly available. Policy guidelines and implementation research are required to advance HIV self-testing for larger populations at scale.

AB - Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. Results: In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen’s Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with p<0.001 for inter-rater agreement. Although 92.6% participants reported that the instructions for the test were easy to understand, 18.7% required the assistance of a supervisor to self-test. Major themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews indicated the importance of the following factors in influencing acceptability of self-testing: clarity and accessibility of test instructions; time-efficiency and convenience of testing; non-invasiveness of the test; and fear of incorrect results. Overall, 96.5% of the participants recommended that the OraQuick® test kits should become publicly available. Conclusions: Self-testing for HIV status using an oral fluid-based rapid test under the supervision of a community health worker was acceptable and feasible among pregnant women in rural India. Participants were supportive of making self-testing publicly available. Policy guidelines and implementation research are required to advance HIV self-testing for larger populations at scale.

KW - supervised HIV self testing

KW - pregnant women

KW - India

KW - Acceptability

KW - Feasibility

KW - pregnancy

U2 - 10.7448/IAS.19.1.20993

DO - 10.7448/IAS.19.1.20993

M3 - Journal article

VL - 19

JO - Journal of the International AIDS Society

JF - Journal of the International AIDS Society

SN - 1758-2652

M1 - 20993

ER -