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Fine-scale in situ measurement of riverbed nitrate production and consumption in an armored permeable riverbed

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

<mark>Journal publication date</mark>15/04/2014
<mark>Journal</mark>Environmental Science and Technology
Issue number8
Number of pages10
Pages (from-to)4425-4434
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date16/03/14
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Alteration of the global nitrogen cycle by man has increased nitrogen loading in waterways considerably, often with harmful consequences for aquatic ecosystems. Dynamic redox conditions within riverbeds support a variety of nitrogen transformations, some of which can attenuate this burden. In reality, however, assessing the importance of processes besides perhaps denitrification is difficult, due to a sparseness of data, especially in situ, where sediment structure and hydrologic pathways are intact. Here we show in situ within a permeable riverbed, through injections of 15N-labeled substrates, that nitrate can be either consumed through denitrification or produced through nitrification, at a previously unresolved fine (centimeter) scale. Nitrification and denitrification occupy different niches in the riverbed, with denitrification occurring across a broad chemical gradient while nitrification is restricted to more oxic sediments. The narrow niche width for nitrification is in effect a break point, with the switch from activity “on” to activity “off” regulated by interactions between subsurface chemistry and hydrology. Although maxima for denitrification and nitrification occur at opposing ends of a chemical gradient, high potentials for both nitrate production and consumption can overlap when groundwater upwelling is strong.