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Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems

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Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems. / Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich ; Ahrens, Bernhard ; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T.; Reichstein, Markus.

In: Nature, Vol. 514, No. 7521, 09.10.2014, p. 213-217.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

Harvard

Carvalhais, N, Forkel, M, Khomik, M, Bellarby, J, Jung, M, Migliavacca, M, Mu, M, Saatchi, S, Santoro, M, Thurner, M, Weber, U, Ahrens, B, Beer, C, Cescatti, A, Randerson, JT & Reichstein, M 2014, 'Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems', Nature, vol. 514, no. 7521, pp. 213-217. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13731

APA

Carvalhais, N., Forkel, M., Khomik, M., Bellarby, J., Jung, M., Migliavacca, M., Mu, M., Saatchi, S., Santoro, M., Thurner, M., Weber, U., Ahrens, B., Beer, C., Cescatti, A., Randerson, J. T., & Reichstein, M. (2014). Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems. Nature, 514(7521), 213-217. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13731

Vancouver

Carvalhais N, Forkel M, Khomik M, Bellarby J, Jung M, Migliavacca M et al. Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems. Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):213-217. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13731

Author

Carvalhais, Nuno ; Forkel, Matthias ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Bellarby, Jessica ; Jung, Martin ; Migliavacca, Mirco ; Mu, Mingquan ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Santoro, Maurizio ; Thurner, Martin ; Weber, Ulrich ; Ahrens, Bernhard ; Beer, Christian ; Cescatti, Alessandro ; Randerson, James T. ; Reichstein, Markus. / Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 514, No. 7521. pp. 213-217.

Bibtex

@article{5bd1483cfec546cbbe7131eb5bc3ae8f,
title = "Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems",
abstract = "The response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections1, 2. The feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of carbon in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type3, 4, 5, 6. Here we present a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, carbon resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem carbon turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/carbon-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the global carbon turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster carbon turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models.",
author = "Nuno Carvalhais and Matthias Forkel and Myroslava Khomik and Jessica Bellarby and Martin Jung and Mirco Migliavacca and Mingquan Mu and Sassan Saatchi and Maurizio Santoro and Martin Thurner and Ulrich Weber and Bernhard Ahrens and Christian Beer and Alessandro Cescatti and Randerson, {James T.} and Markus Reichstein",
year = "2014",
month = oct,
day = "9",
doi = "10.1038/nature13731",
language = "English",
volume = "514",
pages = "213--217",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7521",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems

AU - Carvalhais, Nuno

AU - Forkel, Matthias

AU - Khomik, Myroslava

AU - Bellarby, Jessica

AU - Jung, Martin

AU - Migliavacca, Mirco

AU - Mu, Mingquan

AU - Saatchi, Sassan

AU - Santoro, Maurizio

AU - Thurner, Martin

AU - Weber, Ulrich

AU - Ahrens, Bernhard

AU - Beer, Christian

AU - Cescatti, Alessandro

AU - Randerson, James T.

AU - Reichstein, Markus

PY - 2014/10/9

Y1 - 2014/10/9

N2 - The response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections1, 2. The feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of carbon in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type3, 4, 5, 6. Here we present a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, carbon resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem carbon turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/carbon-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the global carbon turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster carbon turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models.

AB - The response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections1, 2. The feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of carbon in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type3, 4, 5, 6. Here we present a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, carbon resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem carbon turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/carbon-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the global carbon turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster carbon turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models.

U2 - 10.1038/nature13731

DO - 10.1038/nature13731

M3 - Letter

VL - 514

SP - 213

EP - 217

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7521

ER -