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Groove formation on Phobos: testing the Stickney ejecta emplacement model for a subset of the groove population

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Groove formation on Phobos : testing the Stickney ejecta emplacement model for a subset of the groove population. / Wilson, Lionel; Head, James.

In: Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 105, 01.2015, p. 26-42.

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Wilson L, Head J. Groove formation on Phobos: testing the Stickney ejecta emplacement model for a subset of the groove population. Planetary and Space Science. 2015 Jan;105:26-42. Epub 2014 Nov 13. doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2014.11.001

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@article{f09ac5b0f78e42a6bc2a72002e30e03a,
title = "Groove formation on Phobos: testing the Stickney ejecta emplacement model for a subset of the groove population",
abstract = "Numerous theories have been proposed for the formation of grooves on Phobos, and no single explanation is likely to account fully for the wide variety of observed groove morphologies and orientations. One set of grooves is geographically associated with the impact crater Stickney. We test the hypothesis that these grooves were formed by clasts that were ejected from the Stickney crater interior at velocities such that they were able to slide, roll, and/or bounce to distances comparable to observed groove lengths (of the order of one-quarter of the circumference of Phobos), partly crushing the regolith and partly pushing it aside as they moved. We show that this mechanism is physically possible and is consistent with the sizes, shapes, lengths, linearity, and distribution of Stickney-related grooves for plausible values of the material properties of both the regolith and the ejecta clasts. Because the escape velocity from Phobos varies by more than a factor of two over the surface of the satellite, it is possible for ejecta clasts to leave the surface again after generating grooves. We make predictions for the surface characteristics and distributions of such grooves and their deposits on the basis of this model, and then compare them with remotely sensed observations of Phobos׳ grooves. We find that many of their characteristics can be accounted for by a model in which grooves are formed by rolling and bouncing boulders ejected from Stickney. As a further test of this hypothesis, we examine a wide range of lunar boulder tracks, and find that they have considerable similarities to grooves on Phobos in terms of morphology, structure, and relationships with underlying topography. We therefore find that the emplacement of very low-velocity ejecta associated with the Stickney cratering event is a candidate mechanism for the formation of grooves on Phobos. This model and these predictions can be further tested by analysis of high-resolution image data from current and upcoming missions to this and other small airless bodies.",
keywords = "Phobos, Grooves, Boulders, Ejecta, Regolith, Stickney",
author = "Lionel Wilson and James Head",
year = "2015",
month = jan,
doi = "10.1016/j.pss.2014.11.001",
language = "English",
volume = "105",
pages = "26--42",
journal = "Planetary and Space Science",
issn = "0032-0633",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Groove formation on Phobos

T2 - testing the Stickney ejecta emplacement model for a subset of the groove population

AU - Wilson, Lionel

AU - Head, James

PY - 2015/1

Y1 - 2015/1

N2 - Numerous theories have been proposed for the formation of grooves on Phobos, and no single explanation is likely to account fully for the wide variety of observed groove morphologies and orientations. One set of grooves is geographically associated with the impact crater Stickney. We test the hypothesis that these grooves were formed by clasts that were ejected from the Stickney crater interior at velocities such that they were able to slide, roll, and/or bounce to distances comparable to observed groove lengths (of the order of one-quarter of the circumference of Phobos), partly crushing the regolith and partly pushing it aside as they moved. We show that this mechanism is physically possible and is consistent with the sizes, shapes, lengths, linearity, and distribution of Stickney-related grooves for plausible values of the material properties of both the regolith and the ejecta clasts. Because the escape velocity from Phobos varies by more than a factor of two over the surface of the satellite, it is possible for ejecta clasts to leave the surface again after generating grooves. We make predictions for the surface characteristics and distributions of such grooves and their deposits on the basis of this model, and then compare them with remotely sensed observations of Phobos׳ grooves. We find that many of their characteristics can be accounted for by a model in which grooves are formed by rolling and bouncing boulders ejected from Stickney. As a further test of this hypothesis, we examine a wide range of lunar boulder tracks, and find that they have considerable similarities to grooves on Phobos in terms of morphology, structure, and relationships with underlying topography. We therefore find that the emplacement of very low-velocity ejecta associated with the Stickney cratering event is a candidate mechanism for the formation of grooves on Phobos. This model and these predictions can be further tested by analysis of high-resolution image data from current and upcoming missions to this and other small airless bodies.

AB - Numerous theories have been proposed for the formation of grooves on Phobos, and no single explanation is likely to account fully for the wide variety of observed groove morphologies and orientations. One set of grooves is geographically associated with the impact crater Stickney. We test the hypothesis that these grooves were formed by clasts that were ejected from the Stickney crater interior at velocities such that they were able to slide, roll, and/or bounce to distances comparable to observed groove lengths (of the order of one-quarter of the circumference of Phobos), partly crushing the regolith and partly pushing it aside as they moved. We show that this mechanism is physically possible and is consistent with the sizes, shapes, lengths, linearity, and distribution of Stickney-related grooves for plausible values of the material properties of both the regolith and the ejecta clasts. Because the escape velocity from Phobos varies by more than a factor of two over the surface of the satellite, it is possible for ejecta clasts to leave the surface again after generating grooves. We make predictions for the surface characteristics and distributions of such grooves and their deposits on the basis of this model, and then compare them with remotely sensed observations of Phobos׳ grooves. We find that many of their characteristics can be accounted for by a model in which grooves are formed by rolling and bouncing boulders ejected from Stickney. As a further test of this hypothesis, we examine a wide range of lunar boulder tracks, and find that they have considerable similarities to grooves on Phobos in terms of morphology, structure, and relationships with underlying topography. We therefore find that the emplacement of very low-velocity ejecta associated with the Stickney cratering event is a candidate mechanism for the formation of grooves on Phobos. This model and these predictions can be further tested by analysis of high-resolution image data from current and upcoming missions to this and other small airless bodies.

KW - Phobos

KW - Grooves

KW - Boulders

KW - Ejecta

KW - Regolith

KW - Stickney

U2 - 10.1016/j.pss.2014.11.001

DO - 10.1016/j.pss.2014.11.001

M3 - Journal article

VL - 105

SP - 26

EP - 42

JO - Planetary and Space Science

JF - Planetary and Space Science

SN - 0032-0633

ER -