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High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice

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High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice. / Garnett, J.; Halsall, C.; Vader, A.; Joerss, H.; Ebinghaus, R.; Leeson, A.; Wynn, P.M.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 55, No. 16, 17.08.2021, p. 11049-11059.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Garnett, J, Halsall, C, Vader, A, Joerss, H, Ebinghaus, R, Leeson, A & Wynn, PM 2021, 'High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 11049-11059. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01676

APA

Vancouver

Garnett J, Halsall C, Vader A, Joerss H, Ebinghaus R, Leeson A et al. High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice. Environmental Science and Technology. 2021 Aug 17;55(16):11049-11059. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01676

Author

Garnett, J. ; Halsall, C. ; Vader, A. ; Joerss, H. ; Ebinghaus, R. ; Leeson, A. ; Wynn, P.M. / High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2021 ; Vol. 55, No. 16. pp. 11049-11059.

Bibtex

@article{e19debb5377e4099963fc5a6adbb0384,
title = "High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice",
abstract = "Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances are synthetic chemicals that are widely present in the global environment including the Arctic. However, little is known about how these chemicals (particularly perfluoroalkyl acids, PFAA) enter the Arctic marine system and cycle between seawater and sea ice compartments. To evaluate this, we analyzed sea ice, snow, melt ponds, and near-surface seawater at two ice-covered stations located north of the Barents Sea (81 °N) with the aim of investigating PFAA dynamics in the late-season ice pack. Sea ice showed high concentrations of PFAA particularly at the surface with snow-ice (the uppermost sea ice layer strongly influenced by snow) comprising 26–62% of the total PFAA burden. Low salinities (<2.5 ppt) and low δ18OH20 values (<1‰ in snow and upper ice layers) in sea ice revealed the strong influence of meteoric water on sea ice, thus indicating a significant atmospheric source of PFAA with subsequent transfer down the sea ice column in meltwater. Importantly, the under-ice seawater (0.5 m depth) displayed some of the highest concentrations notably for the long-chain PFAA (e.g., PFOA 928 ± 617 pg L–1), which were ≈3-fold higher than those of deeper water (5 m depth) and ≈2-fold higher than those recently measured in surface waters of the North Sea infuenced by industrial inputs of PFAAs. The evidence provided here suggests that meltwater arising early in the melt season from snow and other surface ice floe components drives the higher PFAA concentrations observed in under-ice seawater, which could in turn influence the timing and extent of PFAA exposure for organisms at the base of the marine food web.",
keywords = "Arctic, chemical exposure, meltpond, PFAS, sea ice, seawater, snow, Seawater, Snow, Global environment, Ice-covered station, Marine food web, Meteoric waters, Near surfaces, Perfluoroalkyl acids, Perfluoroalkyl substances, Synthetic chemicals, Sea ice",
author = "J. Garnett and C. Halsall and A. Vader and H. Joerss and R. Ebinghaus and A. Leeson and P.M. Wynn",
year = "2021",
month = aug,
day = "17",
doi = "10.1021/acs.est.1c01676",
language = "English",
volume = "55",
pages = "11049--11059",
journal = "Environmental Science and Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "16",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - High Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Arctic Seawater Driven by Early Thawing Sea Ice

AU - Garnett, J.

AU - Halsall, C.

AU - Vader, A.

AU - Joerss, H.

AU - Ebinghaus, R.

AU - Leeson, A.

AU - Wynn, P.M.

PY - 2021/8/17

Y1 - 2021/8/17

N2 - Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances are synthetic chemicals that are widely present in the global environment including the Arctic. However, little is known about how these chemicals (particularly perfluoroalkyl acids, PFAA) enter the Arctic marine system and cycle between seawater and sea ice compartments. To evaluate this, we analyzed sea ice, snow, melt ponds, and near-surface seawater at two ice-covered stations located north of the Barents Sea (81 °N) with the aim of investigating PFAA dynamics in the late-season ice pack. Sea ice showed high concentrations of PFAA particularly at the surface with snow-ice (the uppermost sea ice layer strongly influenced by snow) comprising 26–62% of the total PFAA burden. Low salinities (<2.5 ppt) and low δ18OH20 values (<1‰ in snow and upper ice layers) in sea ice revealed the strong influence of meteoric water on sea ice, thus indicating a significant atmospheric source of PFAA with subsequent transfer down the sea ice column in meltwater. Importantly, the under-ice seawater (0.5 m depth) displayed some of the highest concentrations notably for the long-chain PFAA (e.g., PFOA 928 ± 617 pg L–1), which were ≈3-fold higher than those of deeper water (5 m depth) and ≈2-fold higher than those recently measured in surface waters of the North Sea infuenced by industrial inputs of PFAAs. The evidence provided here suggests that meltwater arising early in the melt season from snow and other surface ice floe components drives the higher PFAA concentrations observed in under-ice seawater, which could in turn influence the timing and extent of PFAA exposure for organisms at the base of the marine food web.

AB - Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances are synthetic chemicals that are widely present in the global environment including the Arctic. However, little is known about how these chemicals (particularly perfluoroalkyl acids, PFAA) enter the Arctic marine system and cycle between seawater and sea ice compartments. To evaluate this, we analyzed sea ice, snow, melt ponds, and near-surface seawater at two ice-covered stations located north of the Barents Sea (81 °N) with the aim of investigating PFAA dynamics in the late-season ice pack. Sea ice showed high concentrations of PFAA particularly at the surface with snow-ice (the uppermost sea ice layer strongly influenced by snow) comprising 26–62% of the total PFAA burden. Low salinities (<2.5 ppt) and low δ18OH20 values (<1‰ in snow and upper ice layers) in sea ice revealed the strong influence of meteoric water on sea ice, thus indicating a significant atmospheric source of PFAA with subsequent transfer down the sea ice column in meltwater. Importantly, the under-ice seawater (0.5 m depth) displayed some of the highest concentrations notably for the long-chain PFAA (e.g., PFOA 928 ± 617 pg L–1), which were ≈3-fold higher than those of deeper water (5 m depth) and ≈2-fold higher than those recently measured in surface waters of the North Sea infuenced by industrial inputs of PFAAs. The evidence provided here suggests that meltwater arising early in the melt season from snow and other surface ice floe components drives the higher PFAA concentrations observed in under-ice seawater, which could in turn influence the timing and extent of PFAA exposure for organisms at the base of the marine food web.

KW - Arctic

KW - chemical exposure

KW - meltpond

KW - PFAS

KW - sea ice

KW - seawater

KW - snow

KW - Seawater

KW - Snow

KW - Global environment

KW - Ice-covered station

KW - Marine food web

KW - Meteoric waters

KW - Near surfaces

KW - Perfluoroalkyl acids

KW - Perfluoroalkyl substances

KW - Synthetic chemicals

KW - Sea ice

U2 - 10.1021/acs.est.1c01676

DO - 10.1021/acs.est.1c01676

M3 - Journal article

VL - 55

SP - 11049

EP - 11059

JO - Environmental Science and Technology

JF - Environmental Science and Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 16

ER -