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High-energy NCA cells on idle: anode versus cathode driven side reactions

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

E-pub ahead of print
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>18/03/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Batteries & Supercaps
Publication StatusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date18/03/21
<mark>Original language</mark>English


We report on the first year of calendar ageing of commercial high‐energy 21700 lithium‐ion cells, varying over eight state of charge (SoC) and three temperature values. Lithium‐nickel‐cobalt‐aluminium oxide (NCA) and graphite with silicon suboxide (Gr‐SiOx) form cathodes and anodes of those cells, respectively. Degradation is fastest for cells at 70–80 % SoC according to monthly electrochemical check‐up tests. Cells kept at 100 % SoC do not show the fastest capacity fade but develop internal short circuits for temperatures T≥40 °C. Degradation is slowest for cells stored close to 0 % SoC at all temperatures. Rates of capacity fade and their temperature dependencies are distinctly different for SoC values below and above 60 %, respectively. Differential voltage analyses, apparent activation energy analysis, and endpoint slippage tracking provide useful insights into the degradation mechanisms and the respective roles of anode and cathode potential. We discuss how reversible losses of lithium might play a role in alleviating the rate of irreversible losses on commercial cells.