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High-strength nanograined and translucent hydroxyapatite monoliths via continuous hydrothermal synthesis and optimized spark plasma sintering

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  • A.A. Chaudhry
  • H. Yan
  • K. Gong
  • F. Inam
  • G. Viola
  • M.J. Reece
  • J.B.M. Goodall
  • I. Ur Rehman
  • F.K. McNeil-Watson
  • J.C.W. Corbett
  • J.C. Knowles
  • J.A. Darr
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2011
<mark>Journal</mark>Acta Biomaterialia
Issue number2
Number of pages9
Pages (from-to)791-799
Publication StatusPublished
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The synthesis of high-strength, completely dense nanograined hydroxyapatite (bioceramic) monoliths is a challenge as high temperatures or long sintering times are often required. In this study, nanorods of hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium-deficient HA (made using a novel continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis method) were consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) up to full theoretical density in ∼5 min at temperatures up to 1000 °C. After significant optimization of the SPS heating and loading cycles, fully dense HA discs were obtained which were translucent, suggesting very high densities. Significantly high three-point flexural strength values for such materials (up to 158 MPa) were measured. Freeze-fracturing of disks followed by scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed selected samples possessed sub-200 nm sized grains and no visible pores, suggesting they were fully dense. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.