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  • ISPRS_paramo_paper_20200930_accepted

    Rights statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 169, 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.09.025

    Accepted author manuscript, 7.76 MB, Word document

    Available under license: CC BY-NC-ND: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

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Identifying and mapping individual plants in a highly diverse high-elevation ecosystem using UAV imagery and deep learning

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/11/2020
<mark>Journal</mark>ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Volume169
Number of pages12
Pages (from-to)280-291
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date8/10/20
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

The identification and counting of plant individuals is essential for environmental monitoring. UAV based imagery offer ultra-fine spatial resolution and flexibility in data acquisition, and so provide a great opportunity to enhance current plant and in-situ field surveying. However, accurate mapping of individual plants from UAV imagery remains challenging, given the great variation in the sizes and geometries of individual plants and in their distribution. This is true even for deep learning based semantic segmentation and classification methods. In this research, a novel Scale Sequence Residual U-Net (SS Res U-Net) deep learning method was proposed, which integrates a set of Residual U-Nets with a sequence of input scales that can be derived automatically. The SS Res U-Net classifies individual plants by continuously increasing the patch scale, with features learned at small scales passing gradually to larger scales, thus, achieving multi-scale information fusion while retaining fine spatial details of interest. The SS Res U-Net was tested to identify and map frailejones (all plant species of the subtribe Espeletiinae), the dominant plants in one of the world’s most biodiverse high-elevation ecosystems (i.e. the páramos) from UAV imagery. Results demonstrate that the SS Res U-Net has the ability to self-adapt to variation in objects, and consistently achieved the highest classification accuracy (91.67% on average) compared with four state-of-the-art benchmark approaches. In addition, SS Res U-Net produced the best performances in terms of both robustness to training sample size reduction and computational efficiency compared with the benchmarks. Thus, SS Res U-Net shows great promise for solving remotely sensed semantic segmentation and classification tasks, and more general machine intelligence. The prospective implementation of this method to identify and map frailejones in the páramos will benefit immensely the monitoring of their populations for conservation assessments and management, among many other applications.

Bibliographic note

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 169, 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.09.025