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Implications of feed mineral reduction and enhancement for China's feed standards

Research output: Contribution to Journal/MagazineJournal articlepeer-review

Article number105342
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>31/05/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Resources, Conservation and Recycling
Number of pages10
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date13/12/20
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The high concentration of heavy metal in livestock manures is an increasing concern because it has the potential to pollute farmlands. Excessive mineral additives in feeds are the source of heavy metals in the manures. Recently, China has issued new regulations to restrict the use of high-dose mineral feeds. To reduce pollution and to increase the benefits to the industry, it is critical to understand the characteristics of heavy metals in feeds and to develop alternatives that are more efficient. This study analyzed 175 articles (1751 valid data) published in 2000–2020 in peer-reviewed journals. The analysis covered the characteristics of minerals in pig feeds in China, summarized the effects of different additives and discussed the relationships with feed standards. It was noted that Cu and Zn exceeded existing standards for pig feeds. Organic and new inorganic mineral supplements can effectively replace high-dose inorganic minerals to reduce incidents of diarrhea in piglets, improve growth performance and reduce pollution. With the recommended replacement, Zn and Cu in pig manure can be reduced respectively by 8.21×107and 3.23×107 kg per year. It can also improve product quality and efficiency and increase income of breeding enterprises by USD 1.28×1010per year. © 2020