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    Rights statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Water Research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Water Research, 206, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117752

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    Embargo ends: 13/10/22

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In situ measurement of an emerging persistent, mobile and toxic (PMT) substance - Melamine and related triazines in waters by diffusive gradient in thin-films

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

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  • S.-S. Liu
  • Q.-S. Cai
  • C. Li
  • S. Cheng
  • Z. Wang
  • Y. Yang
  • G.-G. Ying
  • A.J. Sweetman
  • C.-E. Chen
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Article number117752
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/11/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>Water Research
Volume206
Number of pages9
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date13/10/21
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Melamine has received increasing public attention as a persistent, mobile and toxic (PMT) substance. To better assess environmental exposure and risks of melamine and related triazines (cyromazine, ammeline, and atrazine), a new passive sampling method based on the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has been developed and validated in this study. The studied triazines were adsorbed quickly and strongly by the selected mixed cation exchange (MCX) binding gels. This MCX-DGT can linearly accumulate these chemicals over at least 5 days, with neither significant individual influence from pH (6–8), ionic strength (0.01–0.5 M) or dissolved organic matter (0–10 M), or interaction effects. Field applications in Southern China showed that DGT performed well in both sewage treatment plant (STP) and river samples. Melamine was found to be the dominant triazine with the concentrations at μg·L−1 in the STP and receiving river. Surprisingly, much higher concentration of melanine was found in the STP effluent than influent, and appeared to be some of the highest concentrations reported in STPs worldwide to date. Comparable melamine and atrazine concentraions in the STP effluent and receiving river suggested other sources to the river. The MCX-DGT sampler developed here was demonstrated to be reliable and robust for measuring the triazines in waters, and is promising as an in situ tool in understanding the occurrence, sources, and fate of the emerging PMT substances in aquatic environment.

Bibliographic note

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Water Research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Water Research, 206, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117752