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Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations

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Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations. / Slater, T.; Shepherd, A.; McMillan, M.; Leeson, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A.; Munneke, P.K.; Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M.; Briggs, K.

In: Nature Communications, Vol. 12, No. 1, 6069, 01.11.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Slater, T, Shepherd, A, McMillan, M, Leeson, A, Gilbert, L, Muir, A, Munneke, PK, Noël, B, Fettweis, X, van den Broeke, M & Briggs, K 2021, 'Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations', Nature Communications, vol. 12, no. 1, 6069. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26229-4

APA

Slater, T., Shepherd, A., McMillan, M., Leeson, A., Gilbert, L., Muir, A., Munneke, P. K., Noël, B., Fettweis, X., van den Broeke, M., & Briggs, K. (2021). Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations. Nature Communications, 12(1), [6069]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26229-4

Vancouver

Slater T, Shepherd A, McMillan M, Leeson A, Gilbert L, Muir A et al. Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations. Nature Communications. 2021 Nov 1;12(1). 6069. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26229-4

Author

Slater, T. ; Shepherd, A. ; McMillan, M. ; Leeson, A. ; Gilbert, L. ; Muir, A. ; Munneke, P.K. ; Noël, B. ; Fettweis, X. ; van den Broeke, M. ; Briggs, K. / Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations. In: Nature Communications. 2021 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.

Bibtex

@article{055dccf64e014537b26707e5c781216b,
title = "Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations",
abstract = "Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased over recent decades affecting global sea level, regional ocean circulation, and coastal marine ecosystems, and it now accounts for most of the contemporary mass imbalance. Estimates of runoff are typically derived from regional climate models because satellite records have been limited to assessments of melting extent. Here, we use CryoSat-2 satellite altimetry to produce direct measurements of Greenland{\textquoteright}s runoff variability, based on seasonal changes in the ice sheet{\textquoteright}s surface elevation. Between 2011 and 2020, Greenland{\textquoteright}s ablation zone thinned on average by 1.4 ± 0.4 m each summer and thickened by 0.9 ± 0.4 m each winter. By adjusting for the steady-state divergence of ice, we estimate that runoff was 357 ± 58 Gt/yr on average – in close agreement with regional climate model simulations (root mean square difference of 47 to 60 Gt/yr). As well as being 21 % higher between 2011 and 2020 than over the preceding three decades, runoff is now also 60 % more variable from year-to-year as a consequence of large-scale fluctuations in atmospheric circulation. Because this variability is not captured in global climate model simulations, our satellite record of runoff should help to refine them and improve confidence in their projections. ",
keywords = "climate modeling, CryoSat, global climate, observational method, regional climate, satellite altimetry, satellite data, seasonal variation, article, Greenland, ice sheet, runoff, simulation, steady state, summer, winter, Arctic, Greenland Ice Sheet",
author = "T. Slater and A. Shepherd and M. McMillan and A. Leeson and L. Gilbert and A. Muir and P.K. Munneke and B. No{\"e}l and X. Fettweis and {van den Broeke}, M. and K. Briggs",
year = "2021",
month = nov,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/s41467-021-26229-4",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Nature Communications",
issn = "2041-1723",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Increased variability in Greenland Ice Sheet runoff from satellite observations

AU - Slater, T.

AU - Shepherd, A.

AU - McMillan, M.

AU - Leeson, A.

AU - Gilbert, L.

AU - Muir, A.

AU - Munneke, P.K.

AU - Noël, B.

AU - Fettweis, X.

AU - van den Broeke, M.

AU - Briggs, K.

PY - 2021/11/1

Y1 - 2021/11/1

N2 - Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased over recent decades affecting global sea level, regional ocean circulation, and coastal marine ecosystems, and it now accounts for most of the contemporary mass imbalance. Estimates of runoff are typically derived from regional climate models because satellite records have been limited to assessments of melting extent. Here, we use CryoSat-2 satellite altimetry to produce direct measurements of Greenland’s runoff variability, based on seasonal changes in the ice sheet’s surface elevation. Between 2011 and 2020, Greenland’s ablation zone thinned on average by 1.4 ± 0.4 m each summer and thickened by 0.9 ± 0.4 m each winter. By adjusting for the steady-state divergence of ice, we estimate that runoff was 357 ± 58 Gt/yr on average – in close agreement with regional climate model simulations (root mean square difference of 47 to 60 Gt/yr). As well as being 21 % higher between 2011 and 2020 than over the preceding three decades, runoff is now also 60 % more variable from year-to-year as a consequence of large-scale fluctuations in atmospheric circulation. Because this variability is not captured in global climate model simulations, our satellite record of runoff should help to refine them and improve confidence in their projections.

AB - Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased over recent decades affecting global sea level, regional ocean circulation, and coastal marine ecosystems, and it now accounts for most of the contemporary mass imbalance. Estimates of runoff are typically derived from regional climate models because satellite records have been limited to assessments of melting extent. Here, we use CryoSat-2 satellite altimetry to produce direct measurements of Greenland’s runoff variability, based on seasonal changes in the ice sheet’s surface elevation. Between 2011 and 2020, Greenland’s ablation zone thinned on average by 1.4 ± 0.4 m each summer and thickened by 0.9 ± 0.4 m each winter. By adjusting for the steady-state divergence of ice, we estimate that runoff was 357 ± 58 Gt/yr on average – in close agreement with regional climate model simulations (root mean square difference of 47 to 60 Gt/yr). As well as being 21 % higher between 2011 and 2020 than over the preceding three decades, runoff is now also 60 % more variable from year-to-year as a consequence of large-scale fluctuations in atmospheric circulation. Because this variability is not captured in global climate model simulations, our satellite record of runoff should help to refine them and improve confidence in their projections.

KW - climate modeling

KW - CryoSat

KW - global climate

KW - observational method

KW - regional climate

KW - satellite altimetry

KW - satellite data

KW - seasonal variation

KW - article

KW - Greenland

KW - ice sheet

KW - runoff

KW - simulation

KW - steady state

KW - summer

KW - winter

KW - Arctic

KW - Greenland Ice Sheet

U2 - 10.1038/s41467-021-26229-4

DO - 10.1038/s41467-021-26229-4

M3 - Journal article

VL - 12

JO - Nature Communications

JF - Nature Communications

SN - 2041-1723

IS - 1

M1 - 6069

ER -