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Intergenerational (im)mobility in Pakistan: is the social elevator broken?

Research output: Contribution to conference - Without ISBN/ISSN Conference paper

Publication date15/03/2024
<mark>Original language</mark>English
EventEuropean Association of Labour Economists Conference
- Bergen, Norway
Duration: 5/09/20247/09/2024


ConferenceEuropean Association of Labour Economists Conference
Abbreviated titleEALE CONFERENCE 2024


There is a large literature on intergenerational social and educational mobility in developed countries, but the evidence in developing countries is still scant. In the current literature, household background has been predicted as a significant determinant of individuals' current and future social status because it influences almost every aspect of their lives. We examine various channels through which household socio-economic background and other household and individual characteristics affect individuals' educational and social opportunities in a developing economy, Pakistan. To accomplish the objectives, we have used a rich dataset: the Pakistan Standards of Living Measurement (PSLM) survey 2019-20, which contains information on individuals and their real parents. The empirical analysis highlights that the level of parents' education is more relevant than the level of parents' occupation skills in individuals' social and educational opportunities. In addition, household wealth, region and province of residence, migration status, and disabilities are also significant predictors of intergenerational mobilities in Pakistan. Our results narrate an unequal and dual labour market in Pakistan. Based on empirical outcomes, the study has offered suitable policy implications for developing economies and Pakistan in particular.